Another representative of the nightshade family is a vegetable that came to Europeans in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from India and gained its widespread popularity in cooking, is eggplant. Today, thousands of recipes for a variety of pickles, stews, caviar are practiced, the basis for which are saturated with vitamins and absolutely nutritional blue ones. This plant is also considered popular among summer residents who prefer harvest from their own garden. What you need to know in order to get high-quality eggplant fruits from the garden, how to choose the right seeds and growing seedlings, which varieties to give preference to, as well as about the peculiarities of caring for the crop in the garden, read on.
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The question of how to grow eggplants at home worries almost every novice gardener, since the cultivation of this plant is accompanied by certain nuances that are primarily related to climatic conditions. For example, if the owner lives in a southern area, where frosts recede earlier than other areas and a warm weather atmosphere reigns, he can pay attention to the selection of seeds from the early maturing category. It is best to purchase hybrids that are designed for less mild conditions and can withstand unfavorable masses. Among them, it is worth noting the following names:
- Nutcracker F1;
- Giselle F1;
- Delicate F1;
- Hippo F1.
Seed material Diamond is considered to be well tested in practice, it is often called a veteran in the field of gardening. It is designed for yields in the most common earthen apartments. This is a low-growing variety that can be planted not only outdoors, but also in separate containers. Due to the fact that the bushes can be planted close to each other, the yield level increases significantly. Therefore, this particular variety is often called the record holder. Early ripe crops begin to fruitful already at the age of one hundred days, but late species give results after more than 150 days, but they persist well and are in no way inferior to the taste of their predecessors. Read more about the best mid-season and late varieties for open ground in the table.
|The best mid-season and late blue varieties for open ground|
|Surprise||This variety is characterized by a traditional dark purple hue, which, along with other varieties, does not differ in high fertility. However, the harvest harvested 120 after germination has excellent taste and competitive presentation..|
|Sailor||A distinctive feature of the species is the original bright lilac color, with the presence of white stripes. This variety begins to bear fruit after 115 days and gives quite large pear-shaped fruits. On average, the weight of one unit is 200 – 400 grams, and the length is 15 – 18 cm.|
|Marzipan||Experts distinguish this variety among the mid-season due to its taste. The pulp of such fruits is juicy and soft, they can be successfully removed even in the northern area. Ripens within 120-125 days.|
|Mishutka||This variety is highly valued in cooking, which is accompanied by such a symbolic tender name. With the right care, the culture is rich in fruit. The growing season is 135-145 days. There is no bitterness in the product, the characteristic is a purple-black color.|
|Black handsome||A distinctive feature is considered resistance to sudden temperature changes and cold masses. The fruits are large, often the weight of a unit reaches 900 g. The pulp of the plant is dense and soft, actively used in cooking.|
|Bovine forehead||Weighty, longish fruits, weighing about 800 g, bring this variety to the owners. The fruits are excellent for processing and keep fresh for a long time. Characteristic is a brownish-purple color and a glossy surface of the rind..|
Gardeners who are not only interested in the topic of how to grow eggplants from seeds, but also an experiment with the color range of fruits, are advised to pay attention to exotic varieties of culture. Following the technology at home, within 4-5 months, you can get white, yellow, green-fruited and even red “blue”. Some of the most famous varieties include – Mantle, Emerald, Golden Eggs, Thai, Icicle, Pelican. Practitioners have the opportunity to diversify their own garden and various forms of culture (ribbed, cylindrical, ovoid, round).
Of course, eggplants, like any other vegetable, can be grown from seeds by simply sowing them in open ground. However, without proper processing and preparation of the seed, you will not have to wait for impressive harvest results, besides, the ripening period of the fruits will drag on for a long time, because even growing the plant by seedlings, the owners have to wait a lot of time to wait for the shoots, and then the fruits. Therefore, the question of how to grow eggplant seedlings has a lot of nuances..
Before sowing, the gardener needs to pay due attention to the preparation of the soil. So for planting seeds for seedlings, you can separately purchase a ready-made substrate in specialized stores. If you prefer to do the work completely independently, then to obtain a fertile mass you will need the following components – peat and rotted sawdust. They are mixed in a separate container in a three to one ratio. You can replace this mass with other ingredients, for example, using turf, humus and mullein in the complex. A mixture of low-lying peat, river sand and compost is considered no less profitable. Whichever of the options the summer resident chooses, additional soil disinfection will be required, since the blue ones are easily affected by various diseases.
So the resulting mixture must be thoroughly warmed up in a water bath or simply boiled water to water the soil, thus killing harmful microbes in it. It is recommended to do the preparation in advance, before preparing the seeds at least a week in advance. After all, disinfection is not the only procedure; additional treatment with stimulants is also required, so half a glass of potassium sulfate is added to ten kilograms of soil. From the moment of application of the solution to sowing, at least two weeks must pass.
As for the preparation of seeds, this process is performed in several stages, with a certain sequence:
- exposure in a manganese solution for an hour;
- thorough washing of the grains;
- the washed material is laid out on a cloth, and wrapped in it, for seven days it is stored in the refrigerator at night;
- a week later, the seeds are soaked for 12 hours in a stimulant, which must be mixed with warm water;
- before planting, the seed must be allowed to dry.
It is recommended to put the finished grains in cassettes with large cells, in them it is more convenient to care for the seedlings, and when planting on the garden, damage to the root system will be excluded. Before emergence, the trays must be covered with foil. After their appearance, the covering procedure should be excluded and the temperature regime should be corrected. Optimal performance during the day is 14-16 degrees, at night 10-12, which contributes to the high-quality development of the rhizome. Seven days later, the seedlings need to be transferred to the day mode, where the marks will rise to 25-27 degrees. In the dark, you need to maintain a stable 12-14 degrees. Such drops are necessary for hardening the seedlings, developing its natural immunity, which prepares it in advance for the conditions of survival in the open field..
The selected area in the garden for planting blue seedlings must necessarily be sunny, without shade and drafts. Its preparation should be done with several visits, starting in the fall. It is imperative that weeds should not be present on the site, moreover, it will be better if the soil structure is light, sandy loam or loamy, this is what this vegetable requires. Therefore, if the owner determines that heavy soil dominates, he should add components such as river sand, sawdust or crushed straw to it. In the fall, the garden bed should be dug up and humus added to increase the fertility of the land. It is strictly forbidden to introduce humus in the spring, during this period the soil must be treated from pests, since if humus is introduced in April, all the forces of the plants will be spent on the formation of the rhizome and stem, and consequently it will come to the formation of the crop with minimal efforts.
Before planting the sprouts in the ground, it is necessary to fill them well with water and let them stand. Eggplants, like other garden plants, are recommended to be planted in the garden late in the evening or early in the morning. The method of planting seedlings is very similar to growing pepper. On the site, either individual holes or characteristic grooves are made, which must be massively filled with water. If the crops are planted in May, then summer residents need to additionally worry about sheltering plants that are very poor at tolerating the nighttime cold snap in the garden. For this purpose, film material is most often used. You can also cover the seedlings with separate ventilated plastic containers with pre-drilled holes.
Along with the search for answers to the question of how to grow eggplant seedlings at home, gardeners should not forget about the intricacies of caring for plants on open land. You need to worry not only about how to protect the seedlings from temperature drops at night, but also from pests. It is also equally important to organize high-quality watering of the garden. Having planted seedlings, the owner should make sure that during the first two weeks the growth of crops is practically invisible, which is associated with adaptation to the environment.
During this period, you should not abuse watering, it is recommended to organize a regular spraying with urea. After the seedlings have taken root, it is always necessary to keep the area moist, prevent the formation of a crust on the soil, and therefore regularly loosen it, especially after it rains. it is equally important to destroy the newly formed weeds in time. It is also not recommended to abuse the feeding of blue ones, excessive nutritional value can harm the fruit. For the entire ripening season, this procedure should be carried out no more than three times..
After planting seedlings, the onset of the direct flowering process, as well as during the ripening period of the fruit, eggplants can be threatened by insect attacks and various diseases. Typical for this culture are lesions with spider mites, blacklegs, aphids, whiteflies, which should be dealt with immediately in order to save the future harvest; there are also a number of preventive measures. For example, in order to exclude the appearance of a spider mite, it is necessary to carry out additional spraying of plants in hot, sultry weather. If the correct level of humidity prevails in the garden, this will repel the malicious aphids. Whitefly is frightened off with traps made of cardboard smeared with honey or petroleum jelly..
Thus, we can say that the question of how to grow eggplants in the open field has a number of technological nuances directly related to soil preparation, seed and seedling care. Subject to generally accepted rules, each summer resident will be able to choose a prolific variety for their climatic conditions and the prevailing type of soil in the territory. Having studied all the subtleties of the process of growing a culture, without special costs, you can get non-standard fruits of eggplants, the most exotic species, an unusual shape and an amazing color. For more information watch the video: