One of the main conditions for ensuring comfortable living conditions in the private sector is the arrangement of a full-fledged sewage system. This will make it possible not to give up the benefits of civilization outside the city and equip the house with the necessary utilities..
Consider the options for organizing an individual sewage system and analyze step by step several technologies for the device of a drain pit.
Within the city or village, there are no questions about the arrangement of the sewerage system – all sewage highways have been rebuilt and adjusted. But outside of megacities, due to the lack of a centralized complex, you have to independently solve the problem and resort to autonomous methods of sewerage devices.
It is advisable to think over the drainage elements and the piping system at the design and construction stage of the house. But even if the construction is completed, you can equip a local sewage system..
Regardless of the time of the work, the arrangement will have two interconnected parts of the system:
When planning the arrangement of a local sewage system, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors:
- the number of residents, the seasonality of the system operation and the total amount of water consumed;
- features of the site relief;
- the presence and location of a drinking water source – a well or a well;
- climatic conditions of the area;
- the proximity of natural reservoirs;
- depth of groundwater.
When choosing a purification device, it is necessary to compare the efficiency, productivity and cost of the arrangement.
A drain pit is the simplest and most affordable option for wastewater disposal. It will be possible to organize the disposal of sewage waste independently. A pit is dug on the site, into which an open tank is installed. A pipeline is laid from the drain points to the tank.
The effluent enters the pit and is absorbed into the ground. Under the influence of microorganisms, sewage decomposes into water and organic matter – a sediment forms at the bottom, and a semi-purified liquid seeps into the depths of the soil. To activate and accelerate processing, bioactive agents are added to the pit. In addition, the use of drugs reduces the amount of sludge deposits, the frequency of sludge pumping is reduced..
The advantages of cesspools:
- low cost;
- the possibility of using improvised materials for installation;
- ease of arrangement.
Disadvantages of the drainage system:
- environmental insecurity and high requirements for the location of the pit;
- decrease in absorptive capacity during operation;
- the appearance of unpleasant odors;
- service life – up to 15 years.
An alternative to a drain pit is the installation of a sealed plastic or metal tank. The storage tank can be poured out of concrete yourself.
The tank performs the function of accumulating wastewater, but not cleaning it. The structure requires regular maintenance – pumping out sewage with a sewage machine. When deepening the tank, it is necessary to strengthen the walls so that when filling the tank does not squeeze or squeeze.
The advantages of a local sewerage system with a storage septic tank:
- a wide range of ready-made plastic and fiberglass tanks of various sizes – 3-120 cubic meters;
- environmental safety – sewage does not seep into the ground;
- ease of installation.
Important! The optimal solution is a fiberglass tank. The material is resistant to decay, temperature extremes, chemically aggressive environments. Fiberglass models are more expensive than plastic ones, but they have a longer service life
Depending on the type of arrangement, drain barrels are produced in horizontal and vertical arrangement. Horizontal models are suitable for areas with high soil water levels. Disadvantage – the need to equip a large pit.
Vertically oriented products are applicable to areas of different sizes. Such septic tanks are permissible for installation if the groundwater level is below 3.5-5 m.
The main disadvantage of the accumulative drainage pit is the need for frequent cleaning (once every 1-2 months).
Among the progressive types of local sewerage, septic tanks are the most effective and highly productive. Biological treatment systems are reliable, durable and provide a high degree of purification. Treated water is often reused for watering plants.
Depending on the modification of the septic tank and the number of sections, the order of operation of the device depends. The general principle of the local sewerage system using the example of a three-chamber system:
The main advantages of complex cleaning systems:
- durability of work;
- high level of purification – up to 95%;
- lack of unpleasant odor;
- variable installation possibilities – loyal requirements for placement;
- ease of maintenance.
A significant disadvantage of the treatment complex is the high cost.
To prevent soil contamination and subsequent infection of people, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the norms for the placement of a cesspool, regulated by SNiP:
- distance to the central water supply – from 10 m;
- the minimum range from a well with drinking water to a drainage ditch depends on the type of soil: sand – 50 m, loam – 30 m, clay – 20 m;
- distance to a residential building – 15 m, technical premises – 10 m;
- remoteness to the border of the site – 2 m.
The bottom of the ditch should be below the “drinking” level of the well under the drain pit. Distance from the base of the waste pit to groundwater – at least 1 m.
The first step is to calculate the volume of the storage tank based on the daily amount of wastewater. According to the standard, the consumption per tenant is 200 l / day. In addition, it is important to consider that the recommended size of the gutter should be three times the daily water consumption of the whole family..
For example, for a house for three people, the minimum pit volume will be: 3 * 200 * 3 = 1800 l (1.8 cubic meters).
- reinforced concrete rings (diameter 1-2 m);
- polymer sand, plastic or metal hatch;
- ventilation tube;
- supporting concrete ring;
- cement strainer.
Instructions for the construction of a cesspool:
Finishing stage – closing the hatch with a lid.
One of the easiest ways to make a cesspool with your own hands is to use old tires from a car. Design advantages: low cost and ease of construction. Negative sides: low performance, insufficient tightness and freezing of the system.
Important! Autonomous sewage from tires is suitable for summer cottages, if the volume of wastewater does not exceed 1 cubic meter per day
List of materials:
- tires from a tractor, trucks;
- gravel, crushed stone and sand;
- PP-pipes for sewerage – diameter from 10 cm;
- plastic cover;
- waterproofing material (film) and concrete mortar.
If, after the construction of a shed or house, unused bricks remain, then it is advisable to equip a local sewage system with your own hands from them. The first stage, as in the previous versions, is the digging of a pit in accordance with the dimensions of a homemade drive.
A plastic container for a septic tank is affordable. The most demanded models are made of polyethylene and polypropylene. Installation of the storage tank is easy enough to do yourself.
Individual sewerage allows you to achieve maximum independence from centralized communal systems. In order for an autonomous complex to work effectively, it is necessary to competently approach the issue of its selection and installation.
Arrangement of local sewerage: video