paints and varnishes

Choosing a paint solvent

No sphere of production can be imagined without paints and varnishes. If in factories the use of a solvent for a certain composition is brought to automatism, then at home, when painting, some novice painters have difficulty choosing the substances to be dissolved. It should be noted that these liquids are used not only as diluents, but also for degreasing, as well as cleaning tools, clothing or surfaces from contamination. They have found wide application in the restoration of art objects, in the manufacture of varnishes and impregnations. The article will focus on the correct choice of paint thinner..

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Types of paint solvents

The solvent not only brings paint and varnish products to the desired consistency, but also diffuses with some components. Moreover, the applied layer after the evaporation of volatile substances acquires a solid state with the original properties.

  • Dissolving compounds are classified into inorganic and organic.
  • The first type includes substances such as: water, liquid ammonia, sulfurous anhydrite. Among the solvents listed, a common man in the street is familiar only with water, which is used to dilute emulsion paints..
  • The second group contains an extended range of chemical compounds – hydrocarbons, ketones, ethers and esters, alcohols, etc. If it is easy to get confused with the use of water, then, as for organic solvents, then without certain knowledge you can easily ruin a can of paint.

In any case, it must have such properties as:

  • easy mixing with the appropriate dye until a homogeneous substance is obtained;
  • volatility;
  • no chemical reaction with the dye.

Composition of organic paint solvents

Liquid substances on an organic basis are widely used due to their properties. Their use in the production of paint products allows the use of materials at low temperatures, in humid environments, etc..

Few will be able to determine the belonging of a particular solvent to a certain group. For some, the name of the chemical compounds is “dark forest”. However, not everything is as complicated as it seems at first glance. To understand their popular types, the following information will help..

  • The group of hydrocarbons and their derivatives includes: refined gasoline, including Nefras and Galosha; turpentine; solvent; xylene.

  • Ketones represented by acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, disobutyl ketone, cyclohexanone.
  • To simple and complex esters refers to dioxane, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate.
  • Alcohols represents: ethanol, methanol, butanol, isopropanol.

Coloring compositions and their solvents

Paint is the most common building material used for indoor and outdoor use, as well as painting various surfaces. The composition of a solvent-based paint contains from 8 to 16 components, of which it can be noted:

  • a substance that forms a film on the surface;
  • tint pigment;
  • filler for strength and gloss;
  • driers that reduce drying times;
  • additives that increase properties (fire safety, resistance to humid environments, etc.).
  • Paints and varnishes are classified into three main groups:
  • water-based (water-dispersed);
  • oil-alkyd;
  • nitro enamels;
  • epoxy.

Water-dispersed materials and their solvents

Acrylic paints widely used for interior work. They have high decorative qualities, resistance to ultraviolet rays. Of the advantages, fire safety and non-toxicity are noted..

  • Despite the fact that water is used as a thinner, after drying, a strong layer forms on the surface to be painted. Fresh drops can be easily removed with a wet cloth. If the coloring matter on the instrument has time to dry, then it can be soaked in warm soapy water..
  • Gasoline, acetone, white spirit, kerosene are used as a solvent for acrylic paint. Its choice depends on the surface to be cleaned. In hardware stores, a special tool is widely presented, which is called “Washer for acrylic paints”.

Latex paint It is used to cover surfaces made of various materials (concrete, galvanized, wooden, plastic, etc.). This product forms a durable, water-repellent and dense layer..

  • To obtain the required viscosity, it is diluted with water. At the end of the painting work, the tool and drops on the objects are immediately washed with water. Dried dirt can be cleaned with toluene, methylbenzene.
  • These alcohol components are part of organic solvents: R-4, R 646, 647, 648. Such agents should be used with caution when trying to wash off drops of paint from parquet. Here you can use a more gentle method – soaking the stains with water diluted with kerosene..

Polyvinyl acetate paint applied to plastered, wood or plasterboard surfaces. PVA-based dispersion is not resistant to wet conditions, therefore it is more suitable for indoor work in dry rooms.

  • The coloring matter is easily washed off with a sponge dipped in soapy water. Small amounts of individual drops are simply removed mechanically, for example, with a knife or spatula.
  • The cured plastic film can be moistened with water and the warm air can be directed with a hair dryer. The softened layer will come off without much effort. Old contaminants are cleaned with acetic acid, white spirit, acetone, benzene, methanol.

Silicone paint forms a reliable, waterproof layer. The elastic coating combines all the best properties of water-dispersible materials. Its advantage lies in the so-called lotus effect – water droplets roll off the surface, carrying away foreign particles.

  • Fresh stains can be removed with a dry and damp cloth without difficulty. For dried drops, mechanical means are used. Long-standing contaminants are cleaned up with organic hydrocarbon-based solvents or ethers. These chemical fluids should be used with caution on plastic surfaces..

Oil-alkyd materials and their solvents

Oil paint – the most affordable type among similar products. If initially the composition was based on natural drying oil, today, in order to reduce the cost, oxidized and artificial drying oils are used. Despite the fact that the material is characterized by a very persistent toxic odor and long drying time, it does not lose its popularity..

  • Wipe off fresh drops with a cloth soaked in oil paint thinner. White spirit, turpentine, kerosene, refined gasoline (Nefrase), butanol or ammonia are excellent for these purposes..

  • Since the paint forms a fairly strong coating, old dirt is removed with great difficulty. As solvents for old paints, you can use special number compositions P 647, 651, Remember, when working with highly toxic chemical compounds, do not neglect personal protective equipment.

Alkyd paint penetrates into the structure of the surface, due to which a durable, moisture-resistant layer is obtained. The compositions are resistant to mechanical damage and adverse climatic conditions. The drying oil, which is the basis, determines the following indices: GF, PF, KO.

  • Drops of GF enamels are easily removed with turpentine or white spirit; PF – xylene, solvent or gasoline, as well as their mixture 1: 1; KO – R-4, R-6, solvent No. 646, No. 649, No. 650.
  • For old dirt, you can use special means – removers. Care should be taken when working with them, as their effect may not be limited to the paint itself. The active substance is able to dissolve the previous layers of primer, putty.

Nitroenamels and their solvents

Nitroenamel used for painting various surfaces, where metal structures occupy a special niche. Paint with a rather pungent odor dries up in 1-2 hours. Glossy finish will last a long time.

  • The best paint solvents NTs are considered to be combined compositions under No. 645, 646, 647, 649, 650. They are used as thinners of thickened enamel, degreasing surfaces, removing residues of coloring material from construction tools.
  • The dirt can be cleaned with a cloth soaked in acetone, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and other similar products of the ether and ester group..

Epoxies and their solvents

Epoxy paint differs in a number of advantages, among which are noted: high resistance to abrasion, long service life and presentable appearance. However, super strength and resistance to many chemicals has a downside – slightly dried material is practically impossible to remove..

  • Wipe off the fresh stain immediately with a dry and clean cloth. If the contamination was not noticed in time, then it is worth using a mechanical method. With relatively large drops, you can use the number structure R-5, R-14, R-40, R-83.

Compatibility of varnishes, paints, solvents

  • Competent selection of a solvent, depending on the composition of paintwork materials, will avoid coagulation, the formation of blisters or cracks after applying dyes. When removing contaminants from these materials, select appropriate solvents..
  • By adhering to these principles, it will be possible to achieve maximum results. Grout in an inconspicuous area before starting work. Chemically active compounds will perfectly cope not only with paint stains, but also with subsequent finishing layers of the base..
  • In the cleaning process, one should rely not so much on the amount of solvent used as on mechanical action. That is, rubbing in a few drops of a liquid substance is quite enough to remove even strong contaminants..

Safety rules for working with solvents

Most of the solvents are active compounds that can have a large impact on human health. Substances on an organic basis, due to their high volatility, are also very fire and explosive.

Their storage requires certain conditions. Toxic and flammable materials should be kept in well-ventilated areas, in compliance with fire safety rules.

Vapor poisoning manifests itself in the following symptoms: dizziness, profuse salivation, sore throat, lacrimation, irregular heartbeat. Regular handling of solvents can lead to chronic diseases of internal organs. It is recommended to use an odorless solvent for oil paints.

To avoid, protect yourself and others from their harmful effects and accidents, compliance with the following rules will help:

  • do not neglect personal protective equipment, namely: gloves, respirators, glasses;
  • work in ventilated, well-ventilated areas, this is the only way to avoid the accumulation of dangerous fumes;
  • in case of contact with mucous membranes, rinse the affected areas with clean, running water and seek medical attention;
  • do not keep organic solvents near heaters and other incandescent objects;
  • Before removing dirt from clothing, try using a small piece of cloth. Some substances are capable of not only dissolving paint, but also the synthetic material itself..