Marching stairs are the most popular in modern construction. They fit easily into any interior of a cottage, private house or apartment. It is quite possible to build a flight staircase made of wood, if you have the desire and certain skills to work with a tool. We will consider the features of the manufacture of marching stairs further..
Table of contents:
Marching stairs are a structure consisting of several flights, separated by a staircase. The simplest and most common option is a single-flight staircase, which consists of a straight staircase with one span. In addition, there are two-flight stairs, which are separated by a turntable, made at a right or turned angle. Although the angle of rotation of the stairs can be any, it depends on the characteristics of the building and the desires of its owners..
The base of the flight staircase is a kosour, which is a wooden or concrete beam of special strength. If the staircase is narrow, then when arranging it, one stringer is enough, otherwise, it will take two or even more.
When arranging a narrow staircase, the kosour can be solid or prefabricated, in the second case, the individual elements are welded together. Such a staircase will have a more unusual and graceful appearance. Stacked welded stringers allow you to make a staircase with an unusual geometric shape.
Another type of marching ladder is a cantilever one. Its appearance has the appearance of a structure, one part of the steps of which is installed in the wall, and the second, as it were, hovers in the air. The steps should be fixed only in the main wall, since a very large load falls on it. For the manufacture of steps for such a staircase, a denser material with a thickness of at least six centimeters is used. According to the price factor, such stairs are distinguished by the highest cost..
Another type of marching stairs is the spinal staircase. Such a staircase includes several elements, the connection of which occurs through the sequential nesting of one element into the structure of another. The appearance is similar to stringers. The advantage of arranging such a marching staircase is the possibility of constructing spiral marching staircases of a serpentine or spiral structure. Its cost is several times more expensive than stringer, although the appearance is the same.
The most demanded are standard two-flight stairs. They differ in the presence of one platform and two marches of the same length..
Among the advantages of marching stairs, it should be noted:
- ease of assembly – standard one- or two-flight ladders are quite simple to manufacture;
- attractive appearance – the flight staircase is able to fit into any type of interior from classic to more modern;
- the ability to rotate each structural element at any angle relative to the opposite, thus surprisingly attractive spiral or serpentine stairs are obtained;
- the possibility of constructing both open and closed access space;
- due to their design, mid-flight stairs are able to withstand the highest loads, unlike other alternative types of stairs.
Photos of marching stairs:
In relation to the number of marches, there are:
- one-flight stairs;
- stairs with two flights;
- multi-flight stairs.
If the height of the flight of stairs exceeds three meters, a two-flight staircase should be installed, otherwise, a single-flight staircase will be sufficient.
In relation to the type of material required for the manufacture of stairs, they are divided into:
- glass, etc..
Concrete or monolithic staircases are the most common, they are installed in most multi-storey buildings, in hospitals, cinemas and other public places. This type of staircase is distinguished by its reliability and strength of the structure, but it requires concrete walls for the construction..
The metal staircase is particularly durable. For finishing the frame, both metal and other materials in the form of wood or tiles are used..
There are several types of metal stairs:
- with the presence of a closed frame – it is used in a building required to hide the frame of the staircase; inexpensive materials are required for the production of this type of staircase, therefore, its construction requires special attention to the connection of channels;
- an open staircase with two stringers – differs in the presence of a rectangular section, has steps and a fence, requires special attention when joining and welding metal;
- open staircase of one-piece type – characterized by the absence of risers, requires additional consoles, with an increase in the load.
Wooden marching ladders are both single-march and multi-march. Single-marching more reliable and durable. In addition, such designs are easy to manufacture and do not require additional investments. Fits well into the interior of large, spacious rooms. Two-flight wooden staircases turn at a right angle or at a turned angle. In addition, they are left-handed and right-handed..
Tip: When building a staircase that will be in the corner of a room, it is recommended to choose a structure with a right angle turn, thus saving space.
If the staircase turns at a turned angle, then the location of the flights of stairs is the opposite.
In relation to the type of the main supporting element, wooden flight stairs are constructed using:
The supporting beams, which are its basis, act as bowstrings for a wooden marching staircase. In addition, they cover the end sections of the stairs. Fixation of the degrees takes place in pre-prepared grooves, which are made in the supporting structure.
It is possible to manufacture a wooden marching staircase using stringers. Kosour is an inclined load-bearing beam that is installed between the landings of the flights of stairs. It is the place on which all the steps rest. The stringer stairs have a sawtooth shape, the steps are installed on the upper part, and the risers – on the lower part. This type of staircase fits perfectly into the interior of the rustic style..
The most modern and popular flight staircase is boltsevaya. Bolts are in the form of metal straps, supports and bolts, with the help of which the steps are connected to the outer side of the railing, handrail and crossbars installed on the ceiling. The internal structure of the staircase is wall-mounted. Among the advantages of this type of staircase, it should be noted:
- ease of installation;
- the possibility of constructing various forms;
- universal purpose.
To make a wooden staircase, it is recommended to use coniferous wood. Since it is distinguished by its optimal cost and ease of processing, in addition, the ladder is made of this material, strong and durable.
For a more expensive option, oak is suitable, a staircase made of it will last much longer, but at a price it will be several times more expensive.
We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the basic recommendations for calculating for the construction of a marching wooden staircase on kosoura:
1. Before starting work, clearly understand that any mistake in the calculation will lead to wasted time, material and effort. Therefore, when carrying out the calculation, it is required to show maximum seriousness, if there are minor flaws or uncertainty in the correctness of this operation, it is better to trust the specialists.
2. To calculate the size of the step, use the formula: 2c + d = 64, in which c- is the width and d is the height. To do this, you need to find out the size of the height of the structure, and then divide this value by the height of the steps.
3. A ladder structure is used as a protrusion, which hangs over the surface of the step. The most optimal protrusion length is up to four centimeters. The size of the degree itself is directly proportional to the height of the footstep.
4. Please note that the height of the step should not be greater than its depth, since it is extremely inconvenient to climb such a ladder..
5. The optimal size of the step depth is about 25-30 cm. To calculate the horizontal size of the stairs, it is necessary to use the AxB formula, in which a is the value of the total number of steps, and B is their width.
The general scheme for making marching stairs made of wood with your own hands consists of the following stages:
1. The first stage of work on the staircase includes thinking through the appearance of the structure, calculating the number of steps, marches and landings, if any. Determine the width of the stairs, the dimensions of the steps. all this is placed on the drawing or diagram. For convenience, use ready-made programs that will help you make a drawing in 3D format.
2. The standard construction of the march is based on bowstrings or stringers. The bowstrings are fastened along the side sections of the stairs, and the stringers are located below, under the steps.
3. First, there is a gradual connection of all steps with bowstrings, and then support bars are installed to strengthen the structure. If the angle of inclination of the stairs is not high, then the bars are not installed. The lower and upper parts of the bowstring are attached to the surface of the walls, floor or ceiling.
A staircase made of wood will perfectly fit into any style of interior, in addition, its cost is an order of magnitude cheaper than that of a monolithic.
For the manufacture of wooden stairs, it is better to give preference to hard tree species in the form of oak, beech, pear, pine.
When choosing wood, pay attention to the degree of its moisture, it should be minimal and quality: the wood should have a uniform texture with no knots and other defects.
Advice: To ensure the strength and durability of the constructed staircase, the moisture content of the wood should remain within 7-13%.
The staircase manufacturing process is based on the following guidelines:
1. To make kosoura, it is preferable to choose boards from pine or other coniferous trees. They should be about four centimeters thick..
2. First of all, start making a pattern that will exactly repeat the design of the step profiles. Use it to mark the wood planks. Using a jigsaw, cut out the teeth that form the frame of the stairs.
Tip: To avoid repeating the procedure for applying the marking with a pattern, use the first option as a basis for making the rest of the stringers.
3. Make the steps according to the preliminary drawing. Do not forget about the presence of a ledge. Install them on the stringer and fix them with nails..
4. Use glue and wood screws to connect the ladder elements. Finally, install the balusters and railings.
To make a wooden marching staircase with your own hands, you will need:
- boards, in accordance with the size of the stairs;
- bars, at least 40 mm thick, which will be used for the construction of steps;
- beams, 30-40 mm thick, for treads and steps;
- timber, section 50×250 mm, for making bowstrings or stringer;
- balusters, railings and handrails, preferably purchased ones, since their manufacture requires vast experience in working with carpentry tools;
- fasteners in the form of stainless steel screws, self-tapping screws and anchor bolts.
To build a staircase, you will need tools such as:
- locksmith corner;
- rulers for making calculations;
- manual or electric drill;
- hacksaws for wood and metal;
- chisels and a hammer for making grooves;
- manual or electric planer;
- medium to fine sanding paper.
With the help of fine-grit sandpaper, all details are cleaned, without exception, all elements of the staircase. If this is not done, then after staining it, roughness will appear on the surface. Gloves are recommended for sanding work.
The main parts of a wooden staircase are:
- bowstring or stringer;
- spacer sleeves.
All the load from the ladder falls on the surface of the stringer. It looks like a load-bearing beam that supports steps and risers. Replaces kosour bowstring, which also helps to distribute the load. It consists of special grooves into which the end parts of the steps are installed. The bowstring is used when arranging a one-way staircase, the second side of which is located near the wall.
Beams made of wood, which consist of steps and treads, act as steps of the stairs. Risers are not always used, in this case, the leg stands freely on the step, but such a ladder is less durable.
Depending on the shape, the steps are classic – rectangular, semicircular, rotary, radius or non-standard.
Railings and balusters are used as a fence. Their size, shape and material of execution completely depends on the general interior of the building and on the preferences of its owners..
Before starting work on cutting out parts, you should calculate their sizes. There are special programs to carry out this process, experienced specialists do it manually.
We propose to consider the option of independent calculations of a wooden marching staircase:
1. To calculate the height of the stairs, you need to measure the distance from the floor on the first floor to the floor on the second. This value will be the length of the flight of stairs.
In our case, the conditional height of the staircase will be 2.5 m, and the thickness of the interfloor overlap will be 0.35 m.The height of the staircase will be 2.85 cm.
2. The next step is to calculate the number of steps. This value depends on the height of the riser, the standard size of which is from 152 to 197 mm. at a lower height, the step will be confused, and at a higher altitude, it is difficult to climb, and it is dangerous to descend. To determine the number of steps, you must divide the height of the stairs by the height of the risers. 2.85 m: 17 = approx. 17 pieces.
3. To calculate the width of a wooden staircase, the individual characteristics of the room are taken into account, the minimum comfortable width is 800 mm. The optimal width for a mid-flight staircase is from 1 to 1.4 m.
After carrying out all the calculations, proceed to cutting out the parts. First, start making the kosour. On the kosour beam, mark the length of the entire staircase and cut off unnecessary parts. Now cut out the openings for installing the steps. This is done using a construction square and a pencil, unnecessary areas are cut off using a jigsaw.
Install the stringer to the location of the ladder. Make sure that its upper end rests well against the surface of the second floor and the floor on the first floor. Check the evenness of all cuts for setting the degrees.
Now make an additional number of stringers based on the first template option. Sand the parts with sandpaper. Attach the stringers to the thick beam using anchor bolts to create a finished structural frame. Reinstall it and attach to the wall with the same bolts..
After firmly fixing the stringers, install the risers. To do this, a wooden beam needs to be cut into the required number of parts, and then they should be aligned and sanded. The parts are fastened using self-tapping screws. Use wood putty to hide their hats..
After installing all the risers, proceed with the installation of the treads. To do this, cut the beam into a certain number of parts. Grind and cut them to shape them at a specific angle. Fix the parts with self-tapping screws.
Completion of the installation – installation of balusters and railings, for which studs and self-tapping screws are used.
Next, the structure is opened with varnish and stained, if necessary.
Tip: Remember to stain the wood with a stain to prolong the life of the wooden ladder and to protect it from moisture..