Ladder

DIY staircase in a private house

In modern suburban construction, it has already become the norm to build houses with several floors, and to ensure free movement between floors in such houses, stairs are equipped. At first glance, the simple construction of a staircase in a private house, which any master can make, requires accurate calculations and an understanding of the mechanics of a person’s walking. An error in calculations or when choosing the type of ladder and the material used can negatively affect the reliability of the ladder structure as a whole, as well as the convenience of its use. Stairs in a private house fit into the usual interior very organically, which gives it great sophistication..

Having made the decision to build a staircase in a private house with your own hands, you must not only be able to handle the tool, but also have some knowledge of the structural elements and types of stairs. For those who decided to make a staircase in a country house for the first time, the information presented in this article will be a good help..

Types of stairs for a private house

When making stairs in a private house on your own, it is vitally important to be familiar with this or that type of stairs, as well as their design and operational features. Today, the variety of types of this seemingly simple building structure, as well as materials for its manufacture, can puzzle the master with a choice. But everything is not as scary as it might seem at first glance..

Stairs in a private house: photo

Types of stairs in a private house

In suburban construction, three main types of staircases are equipped: spiral, marching and on bolts. Each of these types can be built both inside and outside the house, and each of them can serve as an entrance, interfloor, work or walk-through staircase. Wood, metal, concrete, reinforced concrete, natural or artificial stone, plastic, glass, and their combinations are used as materials for the manufacture of such stairs. The choice of this or that material depends on the purpose of the stairs, possible loads and the financial capabilities of the owners. In addition, the choice is influenced by the strengths and weaknesses of each type of ladder..

Spiral staircases

Spiral staircase in a private house

This type of stairs is most often used when it is necessary to strictly save space and where it is simply impossible to equip a straight staircase. When using such stairs, you can forget about convenience, but this is offset by the savings in space. Often, such stairs are equipped for descending or ascending to the attic and basement. From an aesthetic point of view, spiral staircases look very impressive and, moreover, they can be round or made in the form of a polygon or square, which gives designers the opportunity to use them in their projects..

Today you can see spiral staircases in private houses, metal with steps made of glass, plastic or wood, but usually they are completely made of metal, wood or stone. However, not everyone can afford a good stone spiral staircase. And the point is not only in the cost of materials, but also in the complexity of the work..

Marching stairs

Marching staircase in a private house

The most common type of stairs in private houses are marching stairs. The high popularity of mid-flight stairs is ensured by the simplicity of the design and arrangement, as well as the fact that the mechanics of human movement are taken into account in its design to achieve maximum convenience during ascent and descent. The main disadvantage of mid-flight stairs is their need for a large free space, more than 3 m2. But you can save precious meters and install a flight staircase. To do this, use the so-called rotary mid-flight stairs with intermediate platforms..

Marching stairs in private houses are made of metal, wood, stone, concrete, plastic or glass, using only one type of materials or a combination of them. Today, concrete is used for reliability in the manufacture of mid-flight stairs. This approach is quite justified, since the material is available and cheap, and besides, it will last for several decades. But wooden marching stairs in a private house, as they were popular earlier, and continue to hold their positions. In many ways, the reason is that today there is a tendency to build houses from natural and environmentally friendly materials..

Stairs on the bolts

Boltsev staircase in a private house

The name of these stairs comes from the Germanic word Bolzen, which means “bolt”. In fact, the steps of such a staircase are laid on a structure that is attached to the wall with pins or bolts embedded or screwed into the wall. The main advantages of such a ladder are compactness and economy in the use of materials. The peculiarity and disadvantage of this type of stairs is the obligatory presence of a solid stone wall on one side of the stairs..

In the construction of the staircase, metal elements (bolts, rods, pipes) are used to create a frame and handrails, and wood, metal, glass, concrete or reinforced concrete are used for the steps. Bolt-stairs, despite their ostentatious fragility and lightness, can withstand very heavy loads. For example, bolt concrete stairs in private houses can withstand loads of up to 1500 kg, which, in combination with a minimum number of additional structural elements, is very attractive..

Staircase in a private house

A staircase, like any other building structure, consists of several basic elements, made separately and then connected to each other. Depending on the type of staircase, certain elements may be missing in its design, but to create a staircase with your own hands, you need to have an idea of ​​each one. Knowledge of structural elements, their purpose is especially necessary in order to design stairs in private houses.

Elements of stairs in private houses

Steps

This element consists of two parts – a tread and a riser. The tread is a horizontal work surface. The size of the tread is selected based on the convenience of placing the foot on it. But over the centuries, craftsmen have determined that the most convenient tread size is about 30 cm.The width of a staircase in a private house depends on the tread length and varies from 90 cm to 150 cm.

The size of the riser and tread of the stairs in a private house

The riser is the vertical part of the step, and its height should be within 15 – 20 cm. Sometimes, in order to obtain a beautiful staircase design in a private house, steps are made without a riser.

Important! For a classic spiral staircase, the width of the two ends of the step is different. So the widest is 45 cm, and the width of the central part should be about 25 cm.

Support beams

The steps of the ladder are attached to the support beams. They are of three types: kosour, bowstring and pole. The first two types are used for marching stairs, but the pillar is used when arranging a spiral staircase.

Kosour is a wooden beam with a thickness of 50 mm or more with triangular cutouts for steps. A bowstring is also a wooden beam with a thickness of more than 50 mm, but unlike a stringer, cutouts are made only under the treads on the inner side of the beam. A post for a spiral staircase can be made of metal, wood or stone, it is to it that the steps will be attached.

Railings

This structural element ensures safe movement up the stairs and consists of two parts: a handrail and balusters. The handrails are installed on top of the balusters or attached to the wall. Balusters are the supports of the railing and at the same time are the natural enclosure of the entire staircase. Handrails and balusters can be made from a variety of materials, from wood to plasticized PVC. It all depends on what kind of staircase design was chosen in a private house..

Important! A march is a part of a staircase, consisting of several steps and railings. Marches are usually called those parts of the stairs that are separated by landings..

Construction of stairs in a private house

Before making a staircase in a private house, you need to develop a project. To do this, you can use one of the specialized computer programs, or you can contact a company whose specialists, for a certain fee, will perform all the calculations and make drawings. When designing a staircase yourself, you need to remember a number of basic rules, requirements and design features for various types of stairs. This applies to the dimensions of the stairs, the angle of inclination and the place of their installation..

Place of installation of stairs

The choice of the location of the staircase will largely affect its size, slope and appearance. But in order for the ladder to be comfortable and reliable, it is necessary to take into account the following simple rules. First, measure the area of ​​the place of the planned installation, and if it is less than 3 m2, then a spiral staircase should be chosen. Otherwise, you can opt for marching or boltsev stairs. Secondly, the most convenient are straight flight stairs, but such stairs will be long, more than 4 m, and if it is not possible to install such a staircase, you can equip a rotary flight staircase. Thirdly, bolt stairs require a load-bearing wall nearby, to which the steps will be attached..

Dimensions of stairs in a private house

Staircase dimensions in private houses

When designing a staircase in a country house, in addition to free space for the stairs, it is necessary to take into account the convenience of movement along it. So it is customary to make the width of spiral staircases 100 cm. Of course, 150 cm is possible, but then the area occupied by the staircase will increase. For marching and boltsev stairs, the width should be between 120 cm and 150 cm.This width is designed for the movement of two people.

Staircase width in a private house

The length of the staircase is the sum of all its treads, from the first to the last. This applies to all types of stairs. For turning, the staircase is also taken into account..

Staircase length in a private house

With the height of the stairs, everything is much easier. It will be equal to the height from the floor of the lower floor to the floor of the next floor. In this case, the last tread of the stairs should be flush with the floor, and the first one should be placed at the height of the riser.

Choosing the angle of inclination of the stairs

An ideal angle of 45 ° is considered, but, unfortunately, it is not always possible to provide such an angle. Sometimes you have to make the stairs at an angle of 55 ° or more. In such cases, the convenience of movement on it is invariably reduced..

Important! Riser height, tread width and tilt angle are interrelated. So with an increase in the angle of inclination, the height of the riser increases and the width of the tread decreases. And as the angle decreases, the riser decreases and the tread increases.

Table of angles of inclination of stairs in a private house

The above table shows the dimensions of the tread and riser, depending on which angle will be chosen for the projected staircase. As you can see from the table, stairs with an angle of inclination from 30 ° to 45 ° are considered the most convenient..

Installation of a spiral staircase

Installation of a spiral staircase in a private house

Perhaps the assembly of spiral staircases is the most difficult in comparison with march or boltsev staircases. The reason for this is the fanning arrangement of the steps and the need for accurate calculations during installation. Those who decide to equip such a staircase need to do the following:

  • first of all, we make the steps of the stairs. If it is wooden, then we take a wide rectangular board and mark it diagonally for one or two steps, after which we saw and round the edges. If the staircase is made of stone, then you will have to order stone processing for steps in a special workshop. You can make concrete steps. In this case, we make a form and place a reinforcing mesh in it, fill it with concrete and wait for it to dry completely;

Steps of a spiral staircase in a private house

  • having prepared the steps, we install a vertical rack. It can be typeset or solid. It all depends on the staircase project. If the rack is type-setting, then the main pipe with a diameter of 50 mm is installed, the first bushing and rubber hardening are threaded onto it. In the case of using a one-piece rack, after its installation, a groove is cut in the places where the steps are mounted, into which the step will later be laid;
  • now we install the steps. To do this, we take the previously made blanks and string them onto a thin pipe and press them from above with a wider sleeve, after which we fan the steps. To give strength to the entire structure, the steps are connected to each other along the edges using vertical brackets. They can also be fixed to the wall with bolts. For a one-piece rack, the steps are inserted into the slotted grooves, interconnected with brackets and reinforced by fastening on the bolts;
  • it remains to make and install the railing. This is the most difficult stage of work, since the handrails must be made curved, and the balusters must be carved from a single piece of material..

Installation of a flight staircase

Installation of a flight staircase in a private house

The creation of this type of staircase is somewhat simpler in comparison with spiral staircases, but in any case, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the calculations made earlier and monitor the quality of the work performed. Not only reliability depends on this, but also the appearance of the stairs. To install the flight staircase, you must do the following:

  • first of all, we make treads and steps. To do this, we mark the boards and cut them, after which we process the edges, making them even and smooth;
  • now we start creating support beams – stringers or bowstrings. To create a kosour from a wooden beam, you need to make a special template in the form of a right-angled triangle, which fully corresponds to the size of the step. By applying this template to the beam, we mark the places for the cutout. Then we carefully cut them out. To create bowstrings, on the inside of the beam at a certain distance, mark the places for the grooves into which we will insert the treads. The angle of inclination of the grooves must coincide with the angle of inclination of the ladder. For metal stairs, it is most convenient to weld on the inside of the corners under the steps;
  • having finished with the preparation of the support beams, we install them in place and fix them there. If the project provides for a staircase, then we install it first, and then the support beams;
  • then we begin to mount the steps. To do this, first we install the riser and fix it, and then the tread. We use self-tapping screws as fasteners and flush them. For metal stairs, we lay wooden treads on the welded corners and fix them to them with self-tapping screws;
  • after completing the installation of steps, we install balusters and handrails.

Installation of a boltsevo ladder

Installation of a staircase in a private house

The indisputable advantage of boltsevo ladders is their simple design, which also affects the ease of installation itself. The only difficulty during installation is to clearly and correctly mark the places on the wall for bolt fastening. To mount such a ladder, you will need the following:

  • purchase all the necessary fasteners, as well as purchase or make your own treads;
  • on the wall, mark the places for installing the fasteners. Then drill holes and install bolts;
  • now it remains to install the steps. You should start from the bottom. From one edge, the step is attached to the wall, and from the other, another bolt is installed under it;
  • having installed the last step, we proceed with the installation of balusters and handrails.

To create a staircase in a private house with your own hands from purchased materials is not particularly difficult. The only thing that I would like to note is the possibility of purchasing ready-made stairs. Having decided to buy a staircase, you need to be prepared for the fact that the price for stairs in a private house starts from 1000 USD. and depends on the complexity of the design and the materials used.