Instruments

DIY woodworking machines

The woodworking machine is used not only in carpentry or industrial workshops. Using this device on the farm, it is possible to independently make any piece of furniture and even build a house. We will consider further how to make woodworking machines with our own hands..

Table of contents:

Woodworking machine device

Each woodworking machine consists of basic and additional parts. The main parts are:

  • working plate,
  • bed,
  • shaft device,
  • one of the cutting tool options,
  • mechanism responsible for the transmission of motion.

Additional elements of the woodworking machine:

  • areas with a fence of a dangerous place,
  • point responsible for feeding wood material,
  • tool for starting the machine,
  • lubricator.

A heavy structure made of cast iron or solid steel alloy is used as a bed. All structural parts of the machine are installed on the bed. She is responsible for their location and for the stability of the device. In most cases, the bed is installed on a reinforced concrete foundation..

The main function of the desktop is to fix all work items. It is made from pre-ground cast iron. There are two table options: movable and fixed.

A work shaft device is used to attach the cutting tool to the machine. There are several varieties of this device, which differ in the type of cutting tool attached to it. Allocate:

  • saw,
  • knife,
  • spindle work shaft.

It is always made of turned steel, is strong, balanced and has a place where the cutting tool is mounted..

Various parts act as cutting tools. They differ in design and functionality, as well as in shape and size..

High quality carbon steel is used for their manufacture. Consider some types of cutting tools for a woodworking machine:

  • the device in the form of a circular disk is used on circular saw machines;
  • the tool in the form of a saw band is used on band saw machines;
  • flat and shaped knives are used on milling, planing or tenoning structures;
  • drills are used on woodworking drilling machines;
  • the slotting chain is used on chain slotting devices;
  • for milling and tenoning machines, the use of hooks, slotted discs and cutters would be an excellent option;
  • on woodworking machines of the scraper type, scraper knives are used;
  • for grinding machines, roll sandpaper is used.

Woodworking machines photo:

Advantages and scope of use of woodworking machines

Woodworking machines have many advantages over hand tools for processing wood surfaces. Firstly, the speed of the woodworking machine is much higher, therefore, using this device, time is significantly saved on processing one part..

The universal woodworking machine is capable of processing various parts, and performs several types of work, such as grinding, milling and drilling.

Subject to all the technologies for manufacturing a woodworking machine, such a device can serve its owner for more than a dozen years..

Modern woodworking CNC machines have improved work functions, in the process of which, a person working on the machine practically does not overwork. It is enough to launch a pre-recorded program and install the part. At this rate, the number of parts increases, and the time to process them decreases. Such machines are capable of working around the clock and continuously..

If we consider woodworking machines for household use, then among them there are also many advantages:

1. These machines are equipped with a motor with an average power of 2.2 kW, this power allows you to perform work quickly and without overloading..

2. These machines have good quality of the processed products..

3. They do not require large maintenance and operating costs..

4. The ability to install additional attachments, allows you to increase the number of functions of a household woodworking machine.

5. The main functions of such a machine are sawing, grinding, milling and drilling wood..

6. A large number of functions and versatility of such equipment allows you to work with different types of wood, while performing a variety of operations.

7. If we consider reviews about woodworking machines, then for private or home use, the purchase or independent production of a household machine would be an excellent option..

The scope of use of woodworking machines is quite wide, due to their versatility. They are used in both private and industrial woodworking.

With the help of woodworking machines, semi-finished elements or blanks are made, such as boards, bars, veneer, shavings. They are also used to make parts for wooden products or whole wooden structures, for example: parquet, ligature, furniture, parts of musical instruments, etc..

All tasks related to woodworking can be easily solved by a woodworking machine. This device carries out not only sawing and drilling wood, but also its grinding and even carving, the manufacture of which by hand takes dozens of times longer..

The main types of woodworking machines

In relation to the technological principle of wood processing, woodworking machines are divided into:

  • universal,
  • specialized,
  • narrow production.

Universal machines are very popular due to their versatility. They are used in a variety of both industrial and individual enterprises. The peculiarity of such a machine is that it is possible to perform almost all types of wood processing on it. But at the same time, the quality of the work performed will be slightly lower than, for example, with a specialized machine..

Specialized woodworking machines are capable of performing only one function, at the same time they can be reconfigured and used in different industries.

The use of special machines is reduced to the manufacture of certain parts, other operations on such a machine cannot be performed.

Specialized machines are:

  • milling type,
  • circular saw type,
  • band saw type,
  • longitudinal milling type,
  • boring type,
  • tenon type,
  • drilling-milling type,
  • lathe type,
  • grooving type,
  • grinding type.

One of the main types of wood processing are milling machines that perform the following functions:

  • milling parts in various directions,
  • shaped production of parts,
  • clippings of extraordinary elements,
  • making grooves.

Woodworking milling machines are divided into:

  • devices of a simple type, which are single- and double-spindle;
  • copying machines – are engaged in the manufacture of small parts, based on the use of complex technologies;
  • carousel machines perform flat and figured machining.

There are also desktop-type woodworking machines, which in turn are divided into:

  • vertical machines,
  • horizontal type,
  • longitudinal type,
  • highly specialized type.

Lathes – work with different types of wood from soft to hard wood. They are equipped with a copier that produces the same type of parts. The scope of use is not limited to art workshops. Lathes make parts of various shapes: conical, cylindrical.

Lathes are divided into:

  • center – the tool is fed into them mechanically or manually, which can be cut, designed for the manufacture of parts of the same type;
  • lobotocar – make model parts;
  • round-rod – produce products in which the diameter changes along the length of the part.

Circular saws for woodworking machines perform longitudinal, angle and cross cuts. There are manual and mechanized.

Reimus machines plan boards at a flat slope. There are:

  • unilateral,
  • bilateral,
  • multi-knife.

There are special designations to determine the type or type of woodworking machine. The first one or two letters indicate the type according to the principle of operation, and the next ones indicate the technological properties of the machine. To find out the number of work items on a node, there are numbers between these letters.

In relation to the accuracy of the processing of the part, woodworking machines are distinguished:

  • first class (O) – denoting a very high processing accuracy;
  • second class (P) – accuracy is eleven or twelve grades;
  • third grade (C) – with an accuracy of thirteen fifteen grades;
  • fourth grade (H) – with reduced accuracy.

Homemade woodworking machines – manufacturing instructions

To manufacture a universal woodworking machine, you will need:

  • electric motor,
  • shaft,
  • drill chuck,
  • bed, which is adjustable in height.

This tool will easily sharpen, grind and cut wooden parts.

When choosing an engine, pay attention to the following parameters:

  • synchronicity,
  • power in the range from 0.6 to 1.5 kW,
  • average shaft rotation speed per minute 2500 rpm.

The shaft must have a device for fastening the drill chuck. If it is missing, it is necessary to sharpen the end part of the shaft with a file. The diameter of the mount should be slightly larger than the diameter of the cartridge. Then turn on the engine and sharpen the chuck so that it is attached to the shaft. Use a needle file and lapping paste to adjust the chuck to the shaft size. In the absence of such a paste, you should rub the sandpaper and dilute its abrasive with oil..

In the central part of the shaft, drill a hole and cut the thread M5 M6, in order to protect against accidental slipping of the chuck, fix it with a countersunk head.

The standard machine arrangement allows the wood part to be positioned in different positions in relation to the machine.

Woodworking machine drawings:

The table is fastened to the frame with two bolts, and the strips are fastened with fixing brackets..

For the construction of the frame, you will need six metal corners, the cross section of which is 2.5×2.5 cm, and one corner with a cross section of 4×4 cm. Their length is 30 cm. Use a welding machine to connect. Monitor the quality of the welds, as the machine constantly vibrates during operation.

For the manufacture of countertops, it is possible to use plastic, metal, boards or plywood.

To install the parts on the table space, you will need to make a strip and staples. To install a pulley, cutter or saw into the hole of the chuck, it is necessary to additionally make transitional bushings and mandrels.

A simplified version of the manufacture of a woodworking machine

The manufacture of a woodworking machine must begin with its functional purpose, the fewer functions the device performs, the easier it is to build.

To make a bed, take a metal corner or pipe. Weld a sturdy frame, and then reinforce it with additional corners to reduce the vibration level of the structure.

It is better to install the frame in a specific place and concreted it into the floor..

The next stage is the construction or purchase of a woodworking shaft, which has a width of 30 cm, which is able to accommodate several knives at once.

For the construction of the table, use strong and even steel, about 1 cm thick. To adjust the thickness of the planing, make a folding table, consisting of two separate parts. Thus, the height of one piece will be adjusted. In this case, the second part requires rigid fixation..

Take a device with a power of 2 to 5 kW as a motor, with a rotation speed of 2000 to 3000 rpm. If the speed is slower, it will affect the quality of the machine..

Install the engine on the frame. Tighten the straps and make a moving corner to help adjust the length of the cut. Install another corner that will align the position of the workpiece in relation to the cutting tool.