Instruments

DIY cutting machine: design, diagram, manufacturing

Working with a cutting tool, for example, a grinder, many craftsmen understand how much easier it is to cut metal using a simple machine – both the work is more convenient and the cut line is perfect. But when looking at the prices for a metal cutting machine, even the most primitive used one, there is a desire to make something like this device yourself. There are several ways to make a cutting machine with your own hands, for example, based on a grinder or a disc. All designs have their disadvantages or obvious advantages..

Table of contents:

The use of cutting machines for everyday life

When working on metal, it is impossible to do without welding, cutting, grinding and other types of processing. The ability to have the simplest machines in your household, for woodworking and metalworking, is a great help to the home craftsman. In those places where it is difficult to get to work, for example, to cut off a metal ladder or change something in the construction of the attic, you will need a grinder or a circular saw. And cutting equal pieces of reinforcement, rods, small pipes and all kinds of metal blanks is much easier to do on the working surface of the machine.

The same cut-off tank can be used for other purposes to cut aluminum, plastic and other synthetic materials. However, it is not recommended to use metal machines for woodworking purposes. Given the small size of a household metal-cutting machine and the general simplicity of such a design, it will be easy to place it on your estate.

To work on the machine, you will need a well-lit area in the yard or garage, an outlet and a flat floor surface. And if it is not needed, it can always be taken out to a workshop, pantry or utility room before the next use on the farm. Some designs of homemade machine tools can be assembled and disassembled, the frame or base of the structure will remain intact.

A homemade cutting machine can also be used not only in the house, but also rented to recoup the costs of its manufacture – in a word, this is a very profitable device.

Classification of machine tools

Structurally, all metal-cutting machines combine an engine with a transmission, a cutting disc and a working surface of the machine. There are drawings for the cutting machine on most sites dedicated to various homemade products. Knowing the basics of the principle of operation of this device, it is easy to make your own adjustments in order to use the materials and mechanisms that are already on the farm..

1. The power of the motor used depends on the expected performance, and it is important to decide on this before making a cut-off machine. Most of the ready-made cutting machines have a fairly high power – up to 2000 watts. Although a machine for domestic use may have smaller parameters, you should not forget that the metal is the same everywhere..

2. In order to maintain the power of the motor on which the machine will operate, it is important to select a suitable kinematic transmission method. The most common are belt and friction transmission, each method has its own advantages. The gearing transmission is gear, worm, chain, but the latter option is the most popular. The belt drive gives the least noise and is most often used on homemade machines, and for more accurate machines it is not suitable due to the likelihood of the belt slipping. However, with any machine design, it is important to remember to observe safety precautions..

3. It is advisable to equip even a home-made machine with a vice – for guaranteed retention of the processed material. Carbide wheel or abrasive wheel – the choice is up to the master, depending on what is at hand, as well as on the most frequently performed work.

4. Metal cutting angle parameters can vary from 45 ° to 90 °, but usually cutting is done at right angles. Not every homemade machine has this advantage..

5.Diameter of the disc determines the height of the cut piece of metal, but these parameters can be changed. For example, a wide thin-walled pipe can be turned while cutting, but it is difficult to secure with a vice. It is sometimes also problematic to mark a volumetric metal structure on the working surface of the machine. Cutting machines, in most cases, have a working diameter of up to 400 mm.

6. The total productivity of a manual machine for precise metal cutting largely depends on the speed of rotation of the disk. The high speed of the machine directly affects the quality of the cut..

7. The mass and dimensions of a home-made machine are formed depending on the material of the general structure, which it is desirable to equip on the legs with vibration dampers.

8. The type of cutting machine also depends on the feed of the cutting tool – pendulum, with bottom or front feed. The disc is fed from the top with a pendulum feed.

9. A self-made machine can have 2 cutting heads or one, respectively, there are single-head and double-head options.

The abrasive cut-off machine is designed for cutting metal reinforcement, rods, profiles, I-beams, pipes of different diameters, solid parts and profiles at different angles. Works with an abrasive wheel.

Band saw or band saw works on the principle of a closed metal strip moving along the pulleys.

At home, the easiest way is to build a metal cutting disc machine. There are several ways how to make a cutting machine with your own hands, but the simplest method will be the most understandable..

The process of making a machine based on a cutting disc

For work you will need:

  • steel corner,
  • channel,
  • drill,
  • welding machine,
  • electric motor,
  • bearing pair,
  • starting circuit,
  • switch,
  • shaft,
  • coil,
  • wooden board or steel sheet for the work surface,
  • box for ensuring the operation of the electrical circuit.

1. After preparing all the tools, make a frame or a common frame of suitable dimensions, for example, from corner No. 25. Parts of the structure on a cutting machine according to the drawing are measured and cut with a grinder, then they start welding. The finished frame can be placed on the vibration dampers of the legs, which will facilitate the work of the machine. Legs are easier to make from the same profile or small diameter tubes.

2. Channel # 10 is welded to the resulting table, which acts as a guiding axis; it will become the basis of the structure for attaching the cutting part of the machine and connecting it to the motor. Further, the main parts are attached to the channel, including two vertical posts, bolted.

3. Next, it is necessary to weld another frame from the profiles – this is the base for attaching the electric motor and the main cutting blade. On the other side of the frame, an electric motor with a power of about 1.5-2 kW is fixed. Asynchronous motors are considered to be the most durable and reliable. The motor will need to be powered from a 3-phase network. We remind you that a more powerful engine will provide a smoother cut and a good speed of metal cutting work..

4. The method of fixing the shaft and the general principle of its connection to the structure is not fundamental. A rifling machine, with proper provision of the supply of revolutions from the electric motor to the rotating shaft, must work reliably. This will help secure the V-belt. Some work can be ordered by a turner (shaft with supports, belt pulley and disc flanges). It is advisable to make a protrusion of the flange with a diameter of 32 mm.

5. Next, the support bearings are fixed in the slots of the plates of the upper frame on the channel. Bolts and nuts can be used to secure the motor and shaft. Ensuring the operation of the electrical circuit – in a finished box with a switch, which is attached to the bottom of the frame.

6. The connection of the uprights to the shaft with a diameter of 12 mm is done using a clad sleeve. To prevent it from slipping, the sleeve and shaft are attached with the smallest clearance for a sliding fit. A rocker arm is welded onto the bushing from the channel so that its shoulder is in a ratio of 1: 3.

7. You will need to install a stiff spring near the engine – to ensure, return, it will even fit from an expander. Springs and chains should be bolted securely enough.

8. The electric motor is installed from the side of the smaller section of the rocker arm, and the shaft – from the larger side. The belt drive will ensure the movement of the shaft.

9. It is imperative that an emergency stop button and a starting circuit are needed, while the engine must be connected through a box and a three-pole circuit breaker, and the stop button leads to a direct connection to the network. Connecting the machine will provide a three-pole starter that starts the electric motor.

10. Remember about the spark that will fly from the disc – provide it with a shroud. The work is first checked at idle, and only after making sure of the reliability of the structure, you can try cutting soft metal, for example, aluminum, in order to correct all inaccuracies. The working surface of the structure can be made of metal or wood and covered with dense plywood, if necessary for work – fix a vice.

The process of making a machine based on a grinder

There are several ways on how to make a metal cutting machine with your own hands – there are several good videos on this topic.

The first way. The simplest device is a pipe frame, which at the same time serves as a comfortable handle. On one side, a transverse bar is attached by welding, on which there should be holes for fastening the grinder. On this base, the movable shaft will be attached to a piece of the corner, the same part can be attached to the floor of the garage or to the desktop. And on the other hand, they are fixed to a spring, with the help of which the machine structure can return to its original position. With proper attachment of the grinder, the device will help to produce more accurate metal cutting, while freeing one hand.

Do not forget about the back blow of the grinder, when the tool is thrown back if the abrasive disc is jammed. And shards of abrasive from the destruction of the disc can seriously injure. A grinder fixed to the machine with a closed casing minimizes such consequences. However, the simplest design does not make it possible to perform high-precision cutting, for example, when it is necessary to cut small pieces of steel bar that require further adjustment..

The second way to transform a grinder into a cutting machine for metal work. This machine can be made collapsible.

For work you will need:

  • welding machine,
  • drill,
  • steel corner,
  • profiled pipe,
  • channel,
  • shaft,
  • spring,
  • relay,
  • identical bearings,
  • pedal,
  • bolts,
  • wooden board or steel sheet for the work surface.

1. A preliminary drawing or sketch is required, where all dimensions and necessary parts are indicated. There are ready-made drawings for a metal cutting machine on the Internet, but you still have to make your own adjustments using what is already available on the farm. An easy sketch does not require precise measurements, it is enough to observe proportions and have an accurate idea of ​​each structural element. And remember that you will have to change the frame for different sizes of the working disc of the grinder.

2. Two frames on a common axis are the basis of the simplest machine frame, and it is better to weld them from metal. On the lower part, it is necessary to weld the fastener, which will consist of a movable clamp and a pressure angle. The part on which the grinder will be fixed must be made to move vertically relative to the bottom, like a pendulum. You cannot do without a spring, it is needed to return to the starting position. Additionally, by welding, secure the ruler with the limiter – for accuracy of measurements.

3. Starting the operation of such a machine will be provided by a start pedal (button) connected through a low-voltage relay, supplying voltage to the grinder. Checking the structure after switching on must be done at idle speed. If the circle does not touch the casing, rotating freely, then you can apply the design in practice – a homemade metal cutting machine is ready.

4. This design can be collapsible, and other removable disks can be installed on the grinder. When working with other materials, keep in mind the specifics of the materials when cutting them. Remember the safety and precautions when working on metal.