Polymers are all around us, and most of the common items are made from them. There are several types of polymeric materials. Let’s talk about their features, properties and characteristics further..
Table of contents:
Polymer materials combine several groups of plastic of synthetic origin. Among them, we note:
- polymeric substances;
- plastic compounds;
- PCM – polymer composite materials.
In each of these groups, there is a polymeric substance, with the help of which it is possible to determine the characteristics of a particular composition. Polymers are high molecular weight substances, which are added with special additives, that is, stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants, etc..
Plastic is a composite material based on a polymer. In addition, they contain a dispersed or short-fiber type filler. Fillers do not tend to form continuous phases. There are two types of plastic substances:
The first version of plastics is prone to melting and further use, the second version of plastic is not prone to melting under the influence of high temperatures.
In relation to the polymerization method, plastics are extracted using:
Considering the types of polymeric substances, we highlight:
1. Kind of polyoethins – polymers with the same chemical nature belong to this type of polymer. They contain two substances:
Every year, more than one hundred and fifty tons of such polymers are produced in the world. Among the advantages of polyoester substances, we note:
- resistance to ultraviolet radiation;
- resistance to oxidants and rupture;
- mechanical resistance;
- no shrinkage;
- changing properties as needed.
If we compare polyoetheins with other types of polymeric substances, then the first are distinguished by the greatest environmental safety. They require a minimum amount of energy to make and process materials..
2. Polyethylene is widely used in the packaging process of any product. Among the advantages of using this material, we note a wide range of applications and excellent performance characteristics..
The structure of polyethylene is quite simple, so it crystallizes easily.
High pressure polyethylene substances. This material is distinguished by the presence of a light matte sheen, plasticity, and the presence of a wavy texture. This type of film is distinguished by high mechanical resistance, shock and tear resistance, strength even in frost. To soften it, you need a temperature of about one hundred degrees..
Low pressure polyethylene substances. Films of this type have a tough, durable base that is less wavy than the previous version of polyethylene. Steam is used to sterilize this substance, and its softening temperature is more than one hundred and twenty one degrees. Despite having a high resistance to compression, the film has a lower resistance to impact and tear. However, among their advantages are also noted resistance to moisture, chemicals, fat, oil..
Using polyethylene at room temperature results in a softer and more flexible texture. However, in frosty conditions, these characteristics are retained. Therefore, polyethylene is used for storing frozen products. However, when the temperature rises to one hundred degrees Celsius, the characteristics of polyethylene change, it becomes unusable..
Low-pressure polyethylene is used in the manufacture of bottles and for packaging all kinds of substances. It has excellent performance characteristics.
HDPE is more widely used as a packaging polymer. It has low crystallinity, softness, flexibility and affordable cost..
3. Polypropylene is a material that has excellent transparency, high melting point, chemical resistance and resistance to moisture. Polypropylene is able to pass steam, is unstable against oxygen and oxidants.
4. Polyvinyl chloride is a rather fragile and non-elastic material that is most often used as an additive to polymers. Differs in cheap cost, high-viscosity melt, thermal instability, and when heated, tends to release toxic substances.
The manufacture of polymers is a rather complex process, for the implementation of which many technical aspects of working with these materials should be taken into account. There are several types of polymer-based materials manufacturing technologies. Polymer materials, products, equipment, technologies, methods:
- roller-calender method;
- the use of three-component technology;
- the use of extrusion of thermoplastic products;
- method of casting large, medium and small polymers;
- the formation of polystyrene substances;
- production of plates from expanded polystyrene;
- blowing method;
- manufacture of products based on polyurethane foam.
The most popular methods for the production of products from polymer materials are blowing and thermoforming. For the first method, the main raw materials are polyethylene and polypropylene compounds. Among the main characteristics of polyethylene, we note fast shrinkage, resistance to temperature instability. With the help of blowing, three-dimensional products are formed.
With the help of thermal shaping, it is possible to make plastic dishes. In this case, the product manufacturing procedure consists of three stages. First, the amount of plastic is determined, then it is placed in a previously prepared form, then it is melted. The plastic is installed under the press, then it is closed. In the forming station, the product is brought to the desired shape, at the next stage it is cooled and hardened. Next, the product is removed from the mold and thrown into a special tank..
The use of modern equipment for the manufacture of plastic products makes it possible to obtain a substance that is distinguished by its strength and durability..
Automated equipment is distinguished, with its help, polymer substances are also produced. In this case, in the process of working on polymer products, the human factor is practically absent; all work is carried out by special robots..
Using automated equipment, it is possible to obtain substances that are of a higher quality, a wider range of products and a decrease in the cost of their manufacture..
There are a huge number of products made of polymer materials. They differ in size, method of manufacture, composition, For the manufacture of polymers, substances are used in the form:
- natural polyamides with glass fiber content;
- polypropylene, which makes products resistant to frost;
- PVC etc.
Any roof must be durable and reliable. Quite popular finishing materials for the roof are products based on polymer materials. Among the advantages of using them, we note:
- high degree of elasticity;
- excellent strength;
- resistance to stretching and mechanical damage;
- installation in almost any climatic region;
- easy installation and simple operation;
- duration of operation.
The use of a membrane roof of a polymer composition is based on mechanical fastening first of the heat-insulating and waterproofing layers. With the help of a membrane, it is possible to create roofs of buildings of various shapes and configurations..
There are several types of polymer membranes, depending on their composition and main characteristics:
- polyvinyl chloride membranes, which contain additional fillers;
- membranes based on plastic polyesters;
- membranes containing ethylene propylene diene monomer.
The first version of the membrane is particularly popular. The main constituent of the membrane is polyvinyl chloride and various additives. With their help, the composition becomes more resistant to low temperatures. Polyester mesh is used as a reinforcement for the film. It makes the product more durable and tear resistant. It is with the help of these characteristics that it is possible to provide mechanical fastening of the film.
If we consider the disadvantages of PVC membranes, then it is worth noting the loss of their elasticity after a certain period of operation. Since the additives present in their composition lose their properties over time. In addition, this material is by no means used with bitumen-based waterproofers, they are incompatible with each other. The service life of PVC membranes is no more than thirty years.
Membranes based on thermoplastic polyesters contain rubber and special substances that improve their fire safety. In this material, it is possible to successfully combine plasticity and rubber. Among their advantages, we note:
- compatibility with bitumen-based substances;
- duration of operation, do not need repair up to forty years;
- there is a possibility of surface repair, if necessary;
- easy to install;
- longer service life compared to PVC-based materials.
Among the disadvantages, we note only the higher cost of such a roof. Which is completely covered by all its merits.
EPDM-based membranes are distinguished by excellent resistance to climatic changes, elasticity and durability..
Among the large number of polymer building materials and products, a special group includes a polymer roof. Among the advantages of its use, note:
- excellent waterproofing characteristics;
- high level of strength;
- resistance to temperature changes;
- high level of frost resistance;
- lack of joints;
- high resistance to mechanical damage and wear;
- resistance to decay;
- variety of colors;
- ease of installation work;
- the service life is about fifteen years.
A polymer roofing of a self-leveling nature is very similar to a membrane, however, they differ in the technology of material installation. Depending on the technology of pouring the roof, it can be:
The first option is more common due to the presence of a huge number of advantages in it. To apply this type of roof, you will need to pour the composition onto the surface and distribute it evenly with a brush or roller. The main advantage of this roof is its complete tightness, elasticity and solidity..
In relation to the technology of installing a bulk roof, it can be:
A self-leveling roof with reinforcement contains in its composition a whole bitumen emulsion and additional reinforcement with the help of fiberglass. The unreinforced coating consists of an emulsion material that is applied directly to the roof, with a thickness of about 1 mm. The combined option involves the use of polymer mastics, roll-type waterproofing materials, the top layer, which contains stone chips, gravel and paint on a moisture-resistant basis. The lower layer of the roof contains a lining in the form of an inexpensive roll material. At the same time, the reinforcement is provided by the top layer of stone chips.
The composition of the polymer bulk roof contains:
- polymer type compositions;
- fillers that increase the performance of the material;
- primer, with which the base is prepared before applying the roof;
- reinforcing composition – polyester fiber or fiberglass.
A fairly common option is to use a polyurethane-based roof. It fits perfectly on the surface and can be easily installed in difficult areas near a chimney or TV antenna. Polyurethane makes the roof similar to rubber, it gives it such qualities as resistance to temperature changes, durability.
Another option for an organic-based polymer used in the repair and manufacture of bulk roofs is polyurea. Among its advantages, we note:
- very fast polymerization, to walk on the roof it is enough to wait one hour after applying the material;
- the ability to carry out work at temperatures down to -16 and high humidity;
- excellent electrical insulation characteristics;
- resistance to ultraviolet radiation;
- fire safety and resistance to high temperatures;
- duration of operation;
- environmental Safety.
The use of polymer materials and products is associated with various industries and the public. The use of polyurea is especially important in regions with an unstable climate and sudden changes in temperature..