The most important and time-consuming repair tasks are considered to be the leveling of the floor or its screed, because the durability and appearance of the floor finish will depend on their quality. It is not always possible to find ideal conditions for linoleum, parquet or carpet flooring in residential buildings and office buildings, which means that before you put them you will have to work hard to create a reliable and even base. In the article, we will consider the main manufacturers of a rough floor leveler and the technique of working with it..
The need for leveling the base arises both during major repairs and during cosmetic repairs, when the entire old floor is dismantled, and all existing surface imperfections are revealed under it. In such cases, experts recommend screed using special rough floor levelers..
- Rovnitel is a dry multicomponent building mixture used to level the surface of the subfloor, as well as eliminating most of the defects: cracks, pits, bumps, chips, etc. All commercially available mixtures are divided into starting leveling and finishing, in addition, they differ in composition, fraction and structure of the filler and in basic properties..
- A coarse leveler is used in cases where it is necessary to eliminate serious defects or a large difference in height at different points of the floor. Large particles are added to its composition, and after mixing, such a solution can be applied in one pass with a thick layer, upon final drying, the screed is as strong and resistant to cracking as possible..
- Any solid surface, such as concrete slabs, masonry or brickwork, can be used as a base for a rough leveling agent..
The leveling device for the base floor covering, as a rule, consists of a cement-sand mixture and has the following technical parameters
- Appointment. Depending on the brand of the product, it can be used:
- for the device of leveling screeds on a solid and solid foundation (concrete, brick, stone, cement), followed by laying the finishing floor covering;
- for the device of the base layer in warm floors;
- for creating a sloped floor or pouring a base with a slope;
- for pouring floating screed;
- to create a final layer that does not require additional coating, with the possibility of painting with paints on concrete.
- Main positive qualities:
- frost resistance;
- thermal insulation;
- noise absorption;
- the plasticity of the solution;
- high adhesion to the substrate;
- moisture resistance;
- reduced likelihood of cracking;
- wear resistance;
- environmental friendliness.
- cement (grade M200-M400);
- polyfractional sand;
- mineral fillers;
- some mixtures may contain lime or reinforcing fibers.
- Colour. From dark gray to light gray, depending on the number of additional components.
- Fraction size – 0.5-1.2 mm.
- Recommended thickness of one layer. Almost all existing mixtures can be applied with a thickness of 5 mm to 7 cm at a time.There are several special formulations that suggest an increased application thickness of up to 10 cm or reduced to 2 mm.
- Pot life of the solution. Cement compositions have properties to quickly harden in the open air, therefore, the prepared mortar, depending on the composition, should be used in 30-80 minutes (the fewer additional additives, the faster it hardens).
- Coarse floor leveling consumption. For an area of 1 m2 with layers of 1 mm, 15-17 kg of dry matter is consumed, as a rule, the manufacturer indicates on the packaging what area 1 bag of mixture is designed for, for example, a 25 kg PROFIT Monolith package when filled in 3 cm is designed for 0 , 5 m2, that is, for 16 m2 with such a layer thickness, you will need to purchase 800 kg of leveling agent or 32 bags.
- Water consumption. To mix the mixture, observe the proportions of water / powder: 130-200 ml / 1 kg, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions on each specific product. Do not exceed the water consumption rate, since the solution will not have the proper strength.
- Frost resistance. The mixture is capable of withstanding up to 50 freeze / thaw cycles without loss of quality (marking F50).
- Temperature. The rough leveling agent dries evenly and with high quality at the temperature of the base and ambient air from +5 to + 25 degrees.
- Drying time. It is allowed to walk on the hardened surface after 7 hours, pouring the second layer after 24 hours, laying the topcoats after 7-14 days, complete drying 28-35 days (data calculated at an ambient temperature of + 20- + 25 degrees, at a lower temperature the time drying increases).
- Storage conditions and periods. Products are stored in undamaged original packaging, in a dry place, within 6-12 months from the date of production. It is recommended to additionally wrap paper bags in plastic wrap and stack them on pallets.
- Packaging. The product is packed in paper bags of 20 and 25 kg.
Rough leveling agent is used as a base floor mixture on concrete and cement-sandy substrates. Before proceeding with mixing the solution, it is necessary to carry out preliminary work, which primarily includes the correct preparation of the base for pouring.
- The bases for the screed must be solid, solid and clean. These are the three main conditions that must be met without fail. If it is planned to pour the solution onto a concrete surface, then you should make sure that it has gained the proper strength, as a rule, this happens within 2-3 months, the cement-sand base gains strength within 28-35 days.
- The deep cracks or pits on the base, more than 1-2 cm, are repaired with the same leveling agent, which is supposed to be used in the future. If there are too high cement protrusions or mounds, then they are knocked down with a hammer or perforator..
- After the surface acquires a more or less even appearance, you can start cleaning it from dirt, dust, as well as from stains that reduce adhesion (oil, paint, bitumen). Large pieces of debris are removed by hand or with a brush; a construction vacuum cleaner will help get rid of small dirt and dust. Greasy stains can be removed with sandpaper or solvent.
- The cleaned surface should be primed with a compound specially designed for this purpose. For example, impregnations from the company “Livna”: impregnation soil “Profit GN12”, or strengthening impregnation “PN27”. Their main purpose is to pre-treat highly absorbent materials for the subsequent application of various mixtures for floors..
- Primer should be applied at least 5 hours before basic work. Priming helps to achieve uniform drying of the leveling agent, reducing the absorbency of concrete or cement surfaces, thereby minimizing the likelihood of shrinkage cracks on the finished layer.
- In the preparation of a working solution from dry matter, one rule applies – the powder is poured into water, and not vice versa. This allows you to get a high-quality mixture, without lumps. Conscientious manufacturers always indicate on the packaging how much liquid is needed to mix 1 kg of building powder (or proportions per bag). On average, 25 kg of the mixture will require 5-6 liters of clean water at room temperature. When adding more liquid than the manufacturer recommends, it is impossible to obtain a high-quality result, cracks will inevitably appear on the screed, and, in addition, the finished layer will not correspond to the declared strength.
- Water is poured into a plastic or silicone container and a dry substance is gradually added to it, then for 5-8 minutes the solution is stirred with a construction mixer, a hand mixer or a drill with a special nozzle. After that, the solution is left for 5 minutes, and after this time, it is stirred again for 2-3 minutes..
- It should be remembered that cement mixtures have a short pot life, as a rule, it fluctuates within 60-90 minutes, which means it is worth preparing such an amount of the mixture that is easy to use up during this time period..
- The screed over a large area is filled in strips between pre-installed beacons. Lighthouses are metal profiles that are installed at regular intervals and level the mortar in height in one plane. The distance between them can vary from 50 cm to 1.5 m.
- To the base, the profile is fixed on a cement mortar, that is, along each guide, after 30-40 cm, a mixture is applied with moldings, a beacon profile is installed on top of it, and it must be slightly pressed for a more durable fixation. Be sure to level each one with a building level. The height should correspond to the planned height of the screed (1-8 cm).
- A damper tape is glued along the perimeter of the room to be treated, which is also called an edge or heat shrink strip. It is used to compensate for the thermal expansion of the screed and relieve stress from the poured layer and is mandatory when pouring a surface with an area of 32 m2.
- It is made of polyethylene foam 0.8 cm thick and 15 cm wide, one side is made of self-adhesive material, which makes installation as easy as possible, in addition, the upper part of the tape has perforated strips 1 cm wide, which are easily separated if the tape exceeds screed height.
- The prepared solution is poured between two beacons and the mixture is leveled with a metal spatula, then using a rule or a rail, the layer is smoothed, while the formation of voids must be controlled and they are closed in time. If it is necessary to lay the solution in several layers, then each previous one is dried for at least 24 hours.
- A technology is also practiced in which beacons or slats do not remain in the mixture, but are removed. For this, guides are installed on the prepared surface, leveled in a single plane. Coarse leveling is poured through one cell. After the mass hardens, the stoppers are removed and the solution is poured into empty cells, leveling the mixture along the already poured blocks.
- It is not always possible to pour the solution directly onto the base, for example, if its strength is insufficient or if it is impossible to clean from greasy stains that reduce adhesion, in such cases it is recommended to arrange floating screeds.
As a rule, such screeds are installed on the first floors of buildings, as well as in rooms where it is necessary to improve heat and sound insulation. In addition, due to the additional layer, the consumption of the coarse leveling material is reduced, since the thickness of its filling will decrease..
- Floating screeds are called due to the fact that the main solution does not have points of contact with walls or floor slabs, but is located on a special substrate and fenced around the perimeter with a damper tape. Foamed or extruded polystyrene foam boards, as well as mineral wool, izolon and other products intended for flooring can be used as heat and sound insulation materials..
- In general, the pouring of the floating screed is practically the same as the technology of simple pouring of the leveling agent. Requires the same tools and the same operations. The bases on which the lining layers are planned to be laid are cleaned of debris, if there are deep cracks or holes, then they are sealed with cement mortar or glue for ceramic tiles. All protruding parts are knocked down or cut off (for example, the hinges of the floor slabs are best cut with a grinder).
- Further, pin beacons from self-tapping screws or guides from aluminum profiles are installed. If necessary, lay a vapor barrier layer. Without fail, a wide damper tape is glued along the perimeter of the wall. The prepared base is covered with plastic wrap or foil, with the overlap of the sheets on top of each other at least 10 cm.If necessary, lay insulating plates on top, the joints between them are sealed with masking tape, and on top of another layer of film, on which the rough leveling will be poured.
- A floor filled with a coarse leveling material requires protection for at least 72 hours from drafts, direct sunlight and heating by heating appliances. Such measures are necessary to prevent the mass from drying out, its uneven drying, since otherwise the appearance of cracks on the screed cannot be avoided. If you plan to carry out plastering or puttying using gypsum mixtures, as well as working with drywall, then they should be done only after the screed has completely dried.
Several manufacturers have been successfully operating on the Russian market for a long time, in the product range of which dry cement mixtures for rough leveling of the floor occupy not the last place..
- Volma LLC was founded in 1999 in the city of Volgograd. Today it is the largest construction and production group of the Russian Federation, which includes 6 factories, 9 centers for the sale of products and 150 dealers, located, among other things, on the territory of Belarus (Minsk). In 2009, new production lines were opened and the company began production of dry mortar for floors on a cement basis..
- The main direction of Volma’s production is products, the main component of which is gypsum. Therefore, the range of cement products is not so great. The factories produce “Volma-leveling coarse” – a basic floor powdery mixture for the initial pouring of the floor on a concrete or cement-sand base. The admissible thickness of the leveling layer is from 1 to 10 cm. It is used for erecting floors in new construction and when repairing surfaces that have been in operation for a long time.
- The mixture can be used both indoors and outdoors. It involves a manual method of application, can serve as a basis for the subsequent pouring of self-leveling mixtures. Packing 25 kg, cost from 180 to 230 rubles. per packing. This manufacturer of a rough floor leveler has many positive consumer reviews..
- The Novosibirsk plant for the production of dry mixes for repair is a leading manufacturer of high quality building materials in the Siberian region. Products of “Hercules” are distinguished by economical consumption and ease of installation, and due to the use of materials with increased quality requirements, all products of the plant have guaranteed high performance characteristics. Dry mixes for floors from the Hercules company contain various polymers and modifiers, which increase the adhesion and elasticity of the solution, as well as the wear resistance and water resistance of the finished layer..
- “Rough floor leveler Hercules” used to create screed floors on solid substrates. In one pass, it is allowed to apply a layer from 5 mm to 10 cm. The mixture is intended only for work in rooms with a roof. The resulting base floor is moisture resistant. The product contains coarse quartz sand, composite binder and polymer additives. The product is packed in three-layer paper bags, weighing 25 kg, costing from 180 to 200 rubles.
- LLC “Mask” – a plant for the production of dry building mixtures on a cement basis. The production was founded in 1999 and today the company occupies a leading position in its industry in the Siberian and Far Eastern regions. The products are distinguished by stable performance characteristics, improved quality and ease of use, as well as an affordable price. Building mixtures contain unique additives that allow them to be used even in harsh climatic conditions.
- “Rough floor leveler” from the “Mask” company It is used for the basic device and for leveling the horizontal surface in rooms with various purposes. The product contains substances such as cement, polyfractional sand and various chemical additives. Compacted soils, reinforced concrete floors, gravel-sand surfaces and other solid materials can act as a basis for applying the mixture. The main advantages of the leveler are considered to be its high strength. Supplied in packs of 25 kg, cost per bag from 150 to 200 rubles.
- The “Profit” plant is one of the divisions of the “Livna” company, it started working in 2003 and today it produces more than 50,000 tons of powdered building mixtures. The pride of the plant is the complete automation of the control system for the production process lines, thanks to which it is possible to achieve the manufacture of high-quality products. Profit mixes combine the advanced achievements of science and technology with first-class raw materials. In 2007, with the support of German companies, a line for the production of dry mixes intended for machine application was opened, the product was marked with “MN”.
- “PROFIT Monolith” – coarse floor leveler, intended for manual application of leveling screeds, permissible layer thickness from 5 mm to 7.5 cm. Cement-sand mortar can be used on concrete and cement substrates when creating a “warm floor” and floating screeds, as well as a finishing layer that does not involve further overlap. The leveling layer can be covered with linoleum, carpet, tiles and laminate, and self-leveling floor mortars can be applied. It is used both inside and outside buildings. The mixture contains environmentally friendly substances such as cement, coarse sand, mineral fillers and special polymers that provide the solution with plasticity and adhesion, and the finished layer with strength, moisture and frost resistance. Produced in 25 kg paper bags, the cost per package is from 130 to 200 rubles.
- “PROFIT Monolith MN” – basic leveling agent used for the device of leveling layers by means of machine application. The permissible thickness of one layer varies from 5 mm to 7 cm. The mortar can be used to create a base coat for the subsequent application of finishing floor coverings, as well as be the final layer itself. The environmental friendliness of the product is confirmed by various certificates. Packaged in three-layer paper bags of 25 kg, costing from 160 to 220 rubles.
- The Russian-German company was established in 2001 by the merger of the Russian company OTLI into the German concern MC-Bauchemiye. Today, the plant, located in the city of Kirovsk, is engaged in the production of products under the Plitonit brand. All manufactured goods have quality certificates and meet the highest European standards. The company manufactures a range of products designed for rough leveling of floors..
- “Plitonit P1 easy” – mixture, for rough leveling of concrete bases and other monolithic surfaces, is suitable for installing floors with a slope, as well as for laying tiles, parquet and can act as a basis for self-leveling floors. The recommended layer thickness is from 1 to 5 cm. The mortar is used when working inside and outside the building, it is crack-resistant and frost-resistant. Packaged in paper packages of 25 kg, average price from 200 rubles.
- “Plitonit P1 PRO” – basic leveling agent for concrete substrates, the permissible thickness of the applied layer is 1-5 cm. It can be used without a finishing floor covering, as well as painted with paints on concrete. Packed in paper bags of 25 kg, average price 260 rubles.
- “Plitonite P1 lightweight” – coarse leveler for indoor sub-flooring. In one pass, it is allowed to apply the solution with a layer of 2 to 10 cm. Material consumption is reduced. Assumes the flooring of the topcoat. Packaged in 20 kg, cost per bag from 300 to 350 rubles.
- “Plitonit P200” – a professional compound intended for use in industrial and domestic premises, as well as when pouring the base outside buildings. It can be used as a leveling base layer, for covering pipelines and creating sloped surfaces. The mixture is allowed to be poured onto concrete, soil and sand. Can be used without topcoat. The thickness of one layer is from 2 to 10 cm. The finished layer is characterized by increased wear resistance, due to the presence of a reinforcing fiber in the composition. Packaged in 25 kg paper bags, the cost per package is 360-400 rubles.
- Trading and production company “Brookvest” began its activity in 2001 and was engaged in the manufacture of paving slabs, in 2007 a new direction of activity was created – the production of dry building mixtures. All products of the company are made according to the proven recipes of the best European chemical concerns. Brookvest products are supplied and actively used throughout Russia, including in regions with harsh climatic conditions. The advantage of the product is the optimal ratio of price and quality..
- Brookvest NB 52 – coarse leveler designed to create seamless floor structures on a solid and sturdy base. The layer thickness in one pass is from 1 to 5 cm. The price of a coarse leveling agent for Brookvest NB 52 floor varies from 150 to 150 rubles. when packing 25 kg.
Rough floor leveler is an indispensable material at an affordable price. Due to its special qualities, it reduces the pressure on the base (on the floor slab and on the structure of the entire building), increases the operational properties of the floor covering and helps to master the repair in the shortest possible time.