Electrical equipment, light, lighting

How to organize lighting in the bathroom

The brightness of the lighting and the configuration of the lighting fixtures depend on two factors: personal taste and the size of the bathroom. Someone dreams of spotlights, while someone likes a standard plafond in the center of the ceiling. In the article, we will consider how to properly organize lighting in the bathroom..

Content:

The correct arrangement of lighting products and the power of the lamps determine the quality of lighting. The standard scheme looks like this – a ceiling lamp and auxiliary – wall sconces or spots. It is worth noting that the overhead lighting may well be in a combined form – a ceiling lamp and several spotlights.

How to properly position the fixtures

It is important to remember here that there is never a lot of light, even if there is a window opening in this room. Ideally, the lighting should be three levels:

  • overhead lighting – for a small room, it is quite enough to arrange one middle ceiling lamp, but if the budget and dimensions of such a room allow, then you can arrange a starry scattering on the ceiling.
  • work lighting – in the working area, next to the mirror, you can install two light devices located in parallel in its upper part. A good solution would be lamps on flexible arms, they allow you to adjust the luminous flux in the desired direction, thus you can achieve optimal illumination of the face during various hygiene and cosmetic procedures..
  • bottom lighting – here it plays more of a decorative than a functional role. You can decorate a room with architectural elements such as pedestals, steps or niches in an original way using built-in lighting in the form of multicolor lanterns or portholes..

Design decoration

  • It should be noted right away that you should not choose models with a body made of colored glass or plastic, they have such a property as light distortion. Therefore, the best solution would be a closed-type shade made of matte white or transparent material..

  • The area of ​​the room and the height of the ceiling determine the size of the fixture. A low ceiling will not allow you to install a hanging model, in this case, spots, wall-ceiling and spotlights will serve as an ideal option. A “sweeping”, extravagant chandelier, equipped with three or more shades, is not suitable for a room with a small area.
  • The choice should be based on the stylistic solution of the room. So, for example, a Japanese-style bathroom, where the emphasis is on soft soothing tones, metal lamps of strict shapes will look somewhat ridiculous..
  • In a room with an ultra-modern design, lighting fixtures with clear lines in the form of geometric shapes will harmoniously fit in. Here, the material can be metal, plastic or chrome..
  • Classic means the presence of luminaires with laconic shapes without additional details and elements. You can also opt for models with transparent or stained glass. The latter option will create an amazing play of light reflections on the walls of the room..

How to calculate the required power of the fixtures

The comfort of being in a room largely determines the level of illumination, since it affects vision and the nervous system as a whole. Therefore, there are certain standards, where the required number of lumens is indicated for each square meter of the bathroom..

It should be noted here that when buying such products, more attention is paid to Watts, in other words, the energy consumed. And, nevertheless, it is precisely such an indicator as lumen that determines the brightness of the luminous flux of a particular bulb..

For bathrooms and toilets, 200 lumens per square meter is sufficient:

  • incandescent lamp 25 W ̴ 200 lm; 100 W ̴ 1350 lm;
  • halogen lamp (230 V) 42 W ̴ 625 lm; (230 V) 70 W ̴ 1170 lm;
  • fluorescent lamp 40 W ̴ 2000 lm; 200 W ̴ 1500 lm;
  • LEDs 40-80 W ̴ 6000 lm.

When calculating lumens, one should also bear in mind the color of the materials from which the rooms are decorated. If the room is dominated by light shades, then it is necessary to adhere to the minimum indicators, with a dark finish – the maximum.

Protective properties

Typically, there is an IP marking on the body of lighting products, followed by two or sometimes three numbers. Each of them carries important information about the protection against dust, moisture and the degree of shock resistance of this product..

  • The first number in the range from 0 to 6 defines the degree of protection against dust and solid particles. Where 0 is no protection of any kind and 6 is full protection.
  • The second digit, in the range from 0 to 8, indicates the level of moisture resistance. Where 0 is the absence of any protection, and 8 is full protection, up to the complete immersion of the product under water for a long time.
  • The third digit, which is responsible for impact resistance, is in the range from 0 to 10. Here deformation of the body (crack, dent, chip) after mechanical stress is allowed, measured in Joules. But, nevertheless, the lighting device must not only function, but also meet the electrical safety requirements, and maintain the existing IP degree of protection. Thus – 0 means no protection, and 10 (20J) – an anti-vandal indoor lamp.

Summarizing the above information, you can determine the required protection index of the luminaire intended for this room. It must have a minimum degree of protection IP 442 and a maximum of IP 674.

4 humidity zones

The optimum degree of protection for a light fixture can be determined based on its location in the bathroom. This room is divided into zones that differ in the level of humidity..

  • The first zone is located in the immediate vicinity of the sink, bath and inside the shower. Here it is allowed to install 12 W lighting equipment with marking from IP 674.
  • The second zone is the near-ceiling space above the bath bowl, where the light device is exposed to hit, not only drops, but also streams of water. Therefore, it is recommended to opt for a model with a power of up to 24 W and an IP rating of 452 or more..
  • The third zone is located at least 0.5 m from the edge of the bath or washbasin. The lighting device at this point must be protected against water drops, here you can mount a model marked from IP 242.
  • The fourth zone is located at a distance of 3 meters from the bath or sink. Where the lamps are threatened only by steam or condensation. The best solution would be – a model with an IP index of 011 or higher.

Types of lamps, their advantages and disadvantages

Incandescent lamp

A widely used product of this kind due to its low cost, ease of use and instant ignition when turned on.

Ambient temperature has little effect on its performance.

The disadvantages include a low level of luminous flux and a short service life, which is only about 1000 hours. In addition, such lamps get very hot, so they cannot be used if:

  • plastic shade;
  • the lampshade has a miniature shape and is made of textiles.

Halogen lamp

  • Mainly used in spots, it features high luminous efficacy and long service life..
  • The aluminum diffuser copes well with thermal radiation, which makes it possible to use lamps in spotlights on suspended ceilings made of various materials. They are available with 220 V and 12 V power..

The installation of 12-volt lamps has a certain drawback – a low-voltage transformer must be installed for them..

Fluorescent lamps

  • They are favorably distinguished by their luminous flux and long service life.
  • Different types of phosphor are responsible for specific shades of light, such as daylight, warm white, cool natural light, and so on..
  • The tube model acts as an independent source of illumination.

But such products “react” to a decrease in temperature and voltage, in which case they do not ignite. In addition, they do not differ in silent operation and have a limiting power of up to 150 W.

LED lights

  • According to the manufacturer, they will last 100,000 hours, while consuming a small amount of energy.
  • Lamps of this type are used in spotlights, and tape, including colored ones, as decorative lighting..

The disadvantages include the high price, both for the product itself and the equipment (transformer, ventilation system) for its stable operation..

Types and methods of fixing fixtures

A huge selection of lighting products will allow you to choose the most optimal model that matches the cost, technical parameters and design concept. According to the fastening method, they can be divided into 3 groups:

  • embedded – spotlights, spots can act as the main or additional lighting. Their installation is carried out with the help of lugs in the base of the false ceiling, while the ceiling cavity should not be less than 7 cm for a halogen lamp and about 12 cm for an incandescent lamp;
  • pendant models – multi-arm chandeliers, single-lamp lamps are mounted directly on the metal hook of the main ceiling. In this case, the dimensions, weight and shape of the lighting device do not matter much. Their main task is decorativeness and high-quality lighting, which depends on the power of the installed lamps;
  • waybills – in particular, ceiling lamps are suitable for any type of ceiling as a basic or additional light source, if placed on the walls. They are equipped with a metal or plastic base with working holes for mounting, where the installation is carried out with hardware. Such an electrical appliance is produced mainly of the correct shape, moreover, it is compact and lightweight..

Bathroom wiring

  • For bathrooms with high humidity, preference should be given to hidden wiring. The cross-section of the wire – the reliability of the entire system, is determined as follows: the power values ​​of all lamps installed in the room are added, the resulting value is divided by 220 V. The end result is the load on the cable, here it is expressed in amperes. It should be noted that a copper wire with a thickness of 1 mm is capable of withstanding a load of up to 2000 W.
  • Typically, for a copper cable, the cross-section should not be less than 2.5 mm², aluminum – 4 mm². For lighting, a two-core copper wire with a cross section of 1.5 mm² is optimal. It is not recommended to interconnect two cables of different composition and use electrical tape as an insulating material..
  • You should start the process of replacing the wiring by disconnecting the existing cables in the junction box. Carrying can temporarily serve as a power source for the duration of the work. Using the indicator, make sure that all electrical devices are de-energized.
  • The element-by-element removal of the previous wiring is performed with a pointed chisel and a hammer or with a power tool with a nozzle, this process is very dusty and difficult. If it is not possible to determine where it lies, then it is necessary to use a special device.
  • To install a new power line, it is necessary to slit the ceiling and walls to the required points where it is planned to install one or another electrical appliance.

  • You can lay the cable using corrugations so that the wire does not fall out of the groove, it is fixed every meter with a mixture of alabaster or gypsum. As a fastening material, special clamping devices are also suitable, which are pre-mounted in the grooves, and then a corrugation with a cable is inserted into them..
  • After completing this step, connect the cables in the junction box and check the quality of all connections. If all the work is done correctly and there are no closures, the strobe is closed.

Installation of luminaires on the main ceiling

When choosing a model for the main ceiling, it is recommended to give preference to a plafond-plate or a ball-shaped lamp. This device is attached to the concrete floor with hardware, which usually come with the lamp. If the ceiling is wooden, then installation is carried out through the working holes using screws suitable for the diameter..

  • This kind of lighting products is also installed on the wall, if necessary, you can pick up a set consisting of a wall and ceiling shade in a single design solution.
  • Before starting work, the power supply is turned off, then the ends of the cables are stripped and connected to the terminals of the plafond. When tightening the screws, the connected wires are clamped.

  • Next, the base of the plafond is attached and the lamp is screwed in. The power supply should be turned on to make sure that the lamp turns on without any difficulty (blinking, sparks). After checking, you can mount the decorative cap.

Installation of fixtures on a plasterboard ceiling

The wiring for the point light in the bathroom is carried out before the installation of the gypsum board. There is no need to chisel the ceiling for electrical wiring, but it is worth noting that it is desirable to place it in a corrugated pipe. The ends of the wires (at least 20 cm) are brought out to the installation points of all lighting fixtures.

Holes of the required diameter for luminaires on the sheets can be made both before and after their installation. The location of the luminaires should be carefully calculated so that during installation they do not fall on the metal profile. You can make holes using a drill and a special glass nozzle.

  • Incandescent lamps. First, you need to connect the electrical cables to the terminals of the luminaires. To insert the spots into the hole in the ceiling, it is necessary to press the metal ears in the center. Then – release and the fastener will automatically take its initial position and firmly fix the lamp in place. Now you can screw in the lamp.
  • Luminaires with halogen lamps. The supply wires are also attached to the terminals here. Next, the body of the electrical device is installed using spring fasteners. Insert the lamp into the split socket and fix it with the mounting bracket, which is included in the luminaire package. Gloves must be worn when working with halogen lamps.
  • Surface mounted luminaires. First of all, the luminaire bar is fixed with hardware, then the wires of the power lines are connected to the terminal according to the colors. The wires are carefully removed into the hole, and the decorative case is installed. If the luminaire has significant weight, then it is recommended to strengthen the structure at the place of its installation with stiffeners.
  • LED bathroom lighting. Preparatory work begins with connecting the tape to the power adapter, observing the polarity. For this, the wires are inserted into the corresponding sockets and the screws are tightened. It is advisable to extend the tape in small lengths using soldering, while the total length of the LED should not exceed 15 m. Before installation, the surface should be cleaned and degreased. Remove the protective film from the tape and lay it on the surface with light pressure.

Installation of luminaires on a stretch ceiling

All types of lighting fixtures are attached to a rack, which is pre-mounted to the main ceiling, and only then holes for lighting fixtures are made on the finished canvas.

When choosing lamps and lighting devices, several nuances should be taken into account:

  • the holes are reinforced with special clips that prevent the canvas from breaking; if necessary, a thermal insulation ring should also be installed;
  • when choosing lighting products, it is recommended that the best option would be models with an overhead mount type;
  • it is necessary to pay attention to the power of the lamps: for incandescent lamps, it should not be more than 40 W, for halogen lamps – 35 W. Energy-saving minions are the ideal solution for a stretch ceiling;
  • it is not recommended to install chandeliers, the shades of which are a plate;
  • the best option would be lamps with an outdoor type of arrangement of minions. But in this case, the aesthetics of the ceiling suffers – the shade structure will not be able to completely close the insulating ring..

You can use more risky techniques – carry out additional lighting using LED strips on cabinets, bedside tables, around the perimeter of the mirror, shower or bath bowl.

By adjusting the saturation level of the light emission, its direction and at the same time, using light bulbs that emit different shades of lighting, you can achieve amazing results. Such techniques will help create the necessary mood. Create an invigorating atmosphere and “wake up from sleep”, thereby entering a work track or relieve the fatigue of a busy day.

In general, bathroom lighting should be both functional and decorative. That is why it is important to install lighting products of different brightness and design..

Examples of bathroom lighting photos