Electrical equipment, light, lighting

DIY drilling machine

Drilling work is not particularly difficult and often does not require other equipment, except for a conventional drill. Therefore, in home workshops, a drilling machine may not be available. However, if you have a do-it-yourself benchtop drilling machine, you can breathe a sigh of relief, since part of your worries will be solved by itself..


The purpose of the drilling machine

Sometimes there are situations when an electric or hand drill is not able to provide the desired parameters of the drilled hole. Often in amateur radio practice, you need to make printed circuit boards, where you need to drill many holes that have a small diameter. It is inconvenient to drill holes with a diameter of 0.5-1 mm with a hand or electric drill or a large drilling machine, and the drill may break.

Buying industrial drilling machines is not always economically viable, and then you can make a homemade drilling machine. Many people choose exactly mini drilling machines, because, despite the apparent complexity of the design, they are actually very simple equipment and consist of four parts.

A homemade drilling machine is designed for drilling a through and a blind hole in solid material, for example, reaming, reaming, countersinking, cutting discs from sheet materials and cutting internal threads. Drilling and milling machines can perform milling, surface grinding, bevel milling and horizontal milling.

To perform the above operations, a countersink, drill, tap, reamer and other tools are used. Using special tools and additional tools, you can cut a hole with a large diameter, bore the hole and precisely grind the hole.

Types of drilling machines

Drilling machines are of the following types: single and multi-spindle semiautomatic machines, vertical drilling, jig boring, radial drilling, horizontal boring, horizontal boring, diamond boring. Models are designated by numbers and letters. The first number denotes the group to which the machine is assigned, the second is the type of machine, the third and fourth are the dimensions of the machine or the dimensions of the workpiece being processed.

The letter after the first digit means that a certain model of the drilling machine is modernized. If the letter is located at the end, then it should be understood that a different drilling machine was made on the basis of the main model. It is possible to distinguish from all drilling machines such main types of universal machines: multi- and single-spindle, radial and horizontal drilling.

Depending on the area of ​​use, a distinction is made between special and universal drilling equipment. Specialized machine tools for mass production and large-scale industry have also found wide application, which are made on the basis of universal machines by equipping them with multi-spindle threading and drilling heads and by automating the work cycle.

Drilling machine design

A drilling machine, like other technological machines, consists of the following components: a transmission mechanism, an engine, controls and a working body. The transmission mechanism is designed to transfer movement from the electric motor to the working body, which is considered to be a drill, which is mounted in a chuck mounted on a spindle – a rotating shaft.

The rotation to the spindle from the electric motor is transmitted by means of a belt drive. By turning the handle, the chuck and drills can be lowered or raised using the rack and pinion.

On the front panel of the drilling machine there are buttons for turning off and turning on the electric motor. The device of the drilling machine is quite simple: the machine is turned on by pressing one of the extreme buttons, depending on the desired direction of rotation of the spindle, you can turn off the machine by pressing the middle red button.

A fixed vertical screw-column is attached to the base of the machine. By turning the handle, you can move the spindle head up or down along the screw, the second handle is used to fix it in the required position. Control the depth of blind holes using the provided scale.

Depending on the workpiece material, different drilling speeds are required. To do this, it is customary to set a certain spindle speed by transferring a belt drive to pulleys of various diameters. In the shops of factories, more complex schemes of drilling machines are used than have just been considered..

The principle of the machine

Before drilling with a homemade machine, you need to remove all unnecessary from the desktop. The workpiece with the marked hole centers must be clamped in a vise. Next, insert a drill of the required diameter into the chuck and fix it with a special key. To check the correctness of the work carried out, the machine is turned on for a while.

If you have positioned the drill correctly, its tip will not circle as it rotates. If it is installed skewed and it beats, then the drilling machine must be turned off and the drill must be fixed according to the instructions of the drilling machine. Then turn the feed handle, lower the drill and set the vise with the workpiece in such a way that the core coincides with the tip of the drill.

Turn on the machine and drill a hole, press the feed handle smoothly, without much effort or jerking. When drilling a through hole, place the workpiece on a block of wood so that the drill does not break and the machine table does not deteriorate..

When drilling a deep hole, from time to time remove the drill from the hole and cool it by dipping it in a bowl of coolant. It is recommended to reduce the pressure on the handle at the end of drilling. After drilling a hole, smoothly turn the feed handwheel, raise the spindle to the uppermost position and turn off the machine.

Drilling machine manufacturing

The drilling machine is easy to make with your own hands. In everyday life, it is beneficial to have devices and tools on hand for performing carpentry and locksmith work. After the obsolescence of many household appliances in the arsenal of the owners, there are many useful spare parts and electric motors, from which you can, if you wish, make such useful equipment as a drilling machine..

Drill boring machine

The easiest solution for you is to assemble a mini drilling machine with your own hands using a drill. The drill is lightweight, so the rack can be made of chipboard, planks or sheet metal. For comfortable work on such a home-made machine, it is necessary that it turns out to be quite massive to absorb the vibration of the drill and be sufficiently stable.

It is important to get a right angle between the holder and the base. Usually the drill is attached with two clamps (it is better to place a rubber gasket between the clamp and the drill) to the board, which moves along the guides that are fixed on this movable board and on another stationary board. The downward and upward movement of the movable board is controlled by an associated lever..

The downward movement of the lever can be limited by a bar supporting the lever in the lower position. The fixed board is attached to the horizontal pipe through the flange. A horizontal pipe through a square is attached to a vertical pipe, which is attached through a flange to the base of the machine (to a thick wide board) or to a workbench.

The height of the block, which limits the lower position of the lever, is adjusted, which allows you to change the drilling depth. Make 4 holes in the movable board to accommodate the drill collars. On its side, which faces the fixed board, narrow slats are glued, which are lubricated for better sliding with wax.

The drill, in addition to clamps, is fixed with two rods that support it from below. Since with such a mount, the shape of the drill does not strictly ensure the vertical position of the drill, you need to glue a rail to the board to compensate for this.

To ensure the free running of the drill, the guides must be prepared strictly in the vertical direction. They can be metal profiles made of aluminum, which are screwed with threaded screws to the boards along the entire length. Having assembled a strong and stable structure, it is necessary to fasten the profile guides strictly perpendicular to the base plane and parallel to each other..

In the photo of self-made drilling machines, the attachment points to the moving platform of the drill and the method of mounting the guide profiles are clearly visible. The guides must ensure a high-quality pressing of the movable to the stationary board. The main condition for this is the absence of distortions and backlash.

When assembling the lever, remember that you cannot tighten the moving parts; it is customary to use a second nut to lock the nuts. The rail that leads to the movable board from the lever should be rounded at the end. After reducing the pressing forces, to automatically raise the drill to the upper position, it is necessary to put the springs to squeeze or stretch.

One end of the spring is attached to the horizontal pipe with wire, and the other end is attached to the bottom of the movable board. When the spring is not flexible enough, and the stationary board interferes, then this is done through the string.

The machine from the motor from the washing machine

The drawing of a drilling machine, which is assembled on the basis of a motor from a washing machine, differs from the one discussed above in the most complex mechanics and type of electric drive. An asynchronous motor from an old washing machine is heavier and has more vibration. The shaking will be stronger the further from the rack the engine is located..

Intense vibration will cause inaccurate drilling and drill breakage. There are two ways out – to make a powerful bed, so that when the drill is lowered, the drive is also lowered, or the motor is placed motionlessly closer to the holder stand, then only the working part of the drilling machine will walk.

The second way involves more complex execution. Here you need a pulley and a belt that allow you to adjust the speed of rotation. There are many solutions without a belt drive with a drive positioned against the wall. They are much easier to assemble, but the assembly that will be discussed below is characterized by a non-standard approach, and certain techniques used may be useful..

The vibrations still remain, but they are so minimal that when drilling iron with a 0.7 mm drill, the drill remains intact. At home, you can only dream of high precision in the manufacture of such mechanisms, you still need to strive for the maximum fit of parts. The characteristics of the drilling machine and its performance will depend on this..

The moving part of the machine consists of an axial hexagon, a tube of a suitable size, a clamping ring and two bearings and a tube with an internal thread for fixing the chuck. On the hexagon, part of the future transmission system, a pulley is subsequently put on. The pipe must first be cut with a grinder along both ends, and make the cuts on top deep enough to ensure reliable adhesion to the hexagon.

The entrance must be made tight, hammer in. If donning takes place without much effort, then it is necessary to pick up another tube. Then pack the compression ring and bearings. The height adjustment system consists of a pipe with notches and a gear. To make the cuts accurately, you need to roll out the plasticine and drive over it with a gear.

A print will appear that is easy to measure and make the appropriate markings on the control pipe. The length of this ladder should correspond to the maximum height to which the drill can be raised. Press axle with hexagon and bearings into slotted tube.

Such a structure will walk back and forth vertically in the stationary tube of the bed when the gear turns. At the same time, the axis rotates in the horizontal plane through a belt drive. The bed is made of a metal corner with bolts. The whole structure is attached to the wall.

And finally, remember that the first option for assembling a drilling machine is preferable. The proposed second assembly option can be supplemented or improved. However, such a simplified solution deserves attention..