Construction of houses

Well do it yourself

Often, cottage settlements and horticultural areas do not have a centralized water supply. In this case, the problem is solved by building a well or drilling a well. The first option is much cheaper, but less convenient in operation. In most cases, they refuse to install a well due to the high cost of drilling it, but if it is not needed very deep, then the whole process can be performed independently..

Site selection and tools required

First of all, it is necessary to choose the right place for the future location of the well. Due to the high cost of exploration for the aquifer, drilling is most often done at random. Therefore, when choosing a place, you have to be guided only by its rationality:

  • if the organization of a water supply system is planned in the future, then a well should be drilled closer to the house;

  • it should be located in such a way as not to interfere with the movement of people around the site and transport;
  • and also be as close as possible to the facility, for the maintenance of which water is needed. It can be a greenhouse, swimming pool or sauna;
  • there must be a distance of at least 20 meters between the well and the sewer;
  • after choosing a place, the site should be leveled and all objects that may interfere with work should be removed;

When drilling a well with your own hands, you may need the following tools:

  • the drill spoon is used on sandy or light clay soils;
  • a coil is a drill that is used on loamy or clayey soil with a small amount of gravel in it;
  • bits are necessary for hammer drilling;
  • the bailer is used on loose soils and is needed to extract soil when drilling with a percussion method;
  • a certain type of drill for drilling wells is used depending on the type of soil. But the main tool is the auger, which has extension legs. An ordinary fishing drill will do its job well. To improve it, you should weld on reinforced cutters, which can be made from files sharpened with a grinder. Pipes with a diameter of 25 mm are used as elbows;

  • you will additionally need a shovel, pump, hose, cart and barrel;
  • you will also need equipment for wells: a pump, a filter, a hydraulic accumulator, an automation system.

Stages of drilling a well with auger

After the site has been selected and prepared, you can begin the installation of the well. This will require at least two people, but due to the high physical load, there may be more assistants. It is important to remember that competently performed work will protect the well from ground and melt water..

First of all, you need to dig a recess of at least 50 cm, in the future it will serve as a guide.

Advice. Even before drilling begins, you need to buy several pipes for the well, which will begin to form the bore after the first meter traveled. It is desirable that the casing is made of plastic and has threads for connection. Its diameter should be greater than the diameter of the drill. Timely installation of casing pipes will save the well from being “pulled” by the soil. Well pipe prices depend on the material from which they are made..

Further, a drill is lowered into the prepared recess and screwed in. After several turns, it is taken out and cleared of soil..

After the tool has entered the ground for its entire length, an extension rod is attached to it..

As the depth of the well increases, casing is lowered into it. They strengthen the walls of the excavation and block the possible flow of the upper water.

Advice. There is a risk of vertical axis deviation while drilling. This will be evidenced by the impact of the drill on the casing. Alignment is possible with driven wedges between the casing and the ground.

It is important to carefully connect the pipes together. If there is no thread at the ends of the pipes, they are fixed by soldering. When 15 cm of pipe remains above the surface, the next casing should be attached to it, and the drill should be inserted into the well through it..

Drilling depth selection

Having decided to drill a well, you need to decide for what purposes you need water. If these are technical needs and high requirements are not imposed on water quality, then the depth of the well is not important and it will be enough to reach the upper aquifer. In this case, the water will contain various organic impurities, as well as nitrites and nitrates..

If you plan to use the water for drinking, then you will have to drill much deeper and hand over the found water for analysis to the sanitary and epidemiological service..

Choosing a pump and filter for a well

Today, a huge variety of well, borehole and household pumps is produced. The main criteria for choosing are its pressure and performance..

  • The submersible pump will allow you to draw water from a depth of more than 300 meters. It is a small-sized pump to which a pipe of the required length is connected. After fixing the power cable to the injection pipe, it is immersed in the well..

  • The hand pump will allow you to extract water in the event of a power outage. They are membrane, paddle or piston, but in any case they can be used in wells no deeper than 8 meters. They are much cheaper than their electrical counterparts, but you will have to use manual force to get water..
  • The vibrating pump is suitable for wells in sandy soils. It is easy to operate and can lift water from 50 meters. It is a versatile and widely used device. It is produced in two types: with lower and upper water intake. The second option is more preferable, as it is equipped with high-quality cooling, which allows you to work for a long time without overheating. If a vibration pump with a bottom intake is purchased, then it must have a built-in thermostat.
  • Centrifugal submersible pumps are used in wells with high productivity. It is equipped with electronic sensors that turn it off when the water level in the well drops. This type of pump does not generate noise during operation.

When choosing a pump, you should know: the design and diameter of the well, water quality, well flow rate, distance from the water intake point to the mouth and the amount of expected consumption per hour.

Selection and installation of a filter is of great importance in the well equipment..

With certain knowledge, you can not only drill a well yourself, but also successfully service it for many years..

It is a device that provides access to the well only clean water, and also protects the well from collapse. It is most often used in loose sandy soils. To do this, a filter and a sump with a plug are lowered into the well, which serves to collect rock particles that have passed through the filter..

Well cleaning methods

If the well has been drilled recently or has become clogged from time to time, it must be cleaned out. Its clogging may be indicated by a cloudy color of water, an admixture of sand or silt, as well as water coming out of the tap with jerks and air. It is important to immediately start cleaning it, otherwise you will have to drill a new well..

There are several ways to clean it, consider the main ones:

  • using an air compressor when the entire pipe is blown under high pressure. This method is suitable for clearing silt from the casing;
  • using acid. Suitable for cleaning the casing if it is clogged with iron or lime particles. For this method, the pipe is blown through with a compressor, after which all the water is removed and acid is poured, filling the entire volume of the pipes. After filling, the well is closed for 2 days, and after this period it is flushed with water for at least 8 hours. The method is very effective, but has a negative effect on pipes and filters..

With certain knowledge, you can not only drill a well yourself, but also successfully service it for many years..