When erecting a building from bricks or foam blocks, reinforcement is a mandatory technological point. An excellent option in this case would be a masonry basalt mesh. We will talk about the features, advantages and methods of laying this material further..
Table of contents:
For the manufacture of a reinforcing mesh, continuous fibers based on basalt are used., Later impregnated with a special substance. The mesh is characterized by high strength, good performance, and the ability to withstand high loads.
The scope of use is not limited to the laying of walls made of brick or stone, the material is also widespread in the installation of foam blocks and ceramic blocks. In addition, the mesh is used to create adhesive structures based on cement-sand mortar..
Basalt fibers are used to produce meshes, reinforcing rods, woven and roll materials. Basalt mesh is widely used in the road construction industry to strengthen roadways and asphalt pavements.
Among the advantages of the material, we highlight:
- reducing the appearance of cracks on the surface and strengthening it;
- resistance to moisture, corrosion, temperature fluctuations and stretching;
- in comparison with reinforcement, basalt rods do not rust and have a longer service life;
- resistance to aggressive environment and moisture;
- wide scope of use;
- strengthening of walls and masonry;
- the possibility of reinforcing stone structures;
- reducing the level of cracking of concrete products.
Basalt mesh is an excellent alternative to steel reinforcing materials. In the places of welding, the nodes of the steel mesh corrode, oxidize and eventually collapse, leading to the appearance of cracks and defects on the walls. This is due to the effect of an alkaline masonry mortar on the surface..
In addition, metal mesh is heavier than basalt mesh. It loads the building structure and foundation. The springiness of the steel mesh makes it difficult to mount it on the wall. Sharp rods require special care in work.
The elasticity of the basalt mesh allows you to reinforce multi-level structures of complex configuration, it is difficult to injure yourself, and the weight of the material does not complicate its transportation and does not load the overall structure of the building.
We offer a comparison of steel reinforcing mesh with basalt:
1. The basalt version has a low thermal conductivity. Steel mesh, due to its high thermal conductivity, forms cold bridges inside the walls.
2. The same diameter of steel and basalt mesh, the second has better stretching and the ability to withstand heavy loads.
3. One square meter of basalt wool weighs up to 300 grams, the same volume of metal mesh – 2000 grams.
4. Basalt mesh is resistant to most aggressive compounds used in building construction, it does not corrode and does not collapse under their influence..
5. The cost of basalt mesh is an order of magnitude lower than that of steel. Basalt mesh is more comfortable to work with, it is easy to fold and unfold. The material fits evenly on the wall, it is easy to cut, if necessary, even with ordinary scissors.
6. According to the conducted studies, walls with basalt mesh reinforcement are distinguished by high bearing capacities, in comparison with non-reinforced elements..
The scope of use of basalt grids is quite extensive. They are used in low-rise construction of buildings, in the process of erecting stone, brick or foam block walls. In addition, meshes are actively used for plastering, they perfectly reinforce walls and prevent cracking..
Basalt mesh is used to connect two-layer masonry. For example, if the walls are made of foam blocks, but they are additionally faced with bricks. Basalt mesh features high mechanical strength, good chemical anti-corrosion, low thermal conductivity.
Before laying the mesh, calculate the amount of material needed for the job. Next, the mesh must be cut in relation to the size of the walls on which it is laid. Cutting the material is done with ordinary scissors or metal scissors. Further actions are determined by the presence or absence of a heat-insulating layer.
A minimum of two people are required to install the mesh. The joints between certain segments are laid with an overlap of 3-4 cells. After fixing the mesh on the wall, facing brick or cellular blocks are laid on top of it. Please note that a rough displacement of the mesh or its deformation is unacceptable. This will lead to a decrease in the bearing capacity of the walls. Basalt mesh is used if the masonry is done using cement, lime mortar or glue.
The mesh is laid in such a way as to protrude from the side by 0.5 cm. The installation of the basalt mesh is carried out through two rows of installation of a large-sized stone or foam block. Reinforcement of brickwork implies the fulfillment of the following requirements:
- to connect adjacent meshes with each other, install the mesh with an overlap of 3 mm;
- the thickness of the seam of the reinforced masonry is the diameter of the intersection of the two rods;
- at the periodic completion of the masonry, equip the shtrab, thanks to which reinforcement will continue in the future;
- the corner parts of the house are reinforced with special elements;
- all work is carried out in compliance with safety rules.
Aerated concrete walls are laid using special adhesives or cement mortar. The first option is more expensive, but much more effective. The amount of glue for connecting gas blocks is 3-4 times less than cement, and the cost is two times higher than that of cement. Therefore, we still recommend using an adhesive composition when laying.
In addition, glue, in comparison with cement, has a positive effect on the low thermal conductivity of basalt mesh, further improving the thermal insulation in the house. If the outer part of the house is made of bricks, then in this case, the reinforcing mesh connects them to the foam blocks. Quite often, insulation or vapor barrier is placed between these layers..
The reference version of the wall consists of the following layers:
- reinforcement of foam concrete structures;
- plate or mineral wool insulation;
- vapor barrier;
- ventilation layer;
- brick cladding.
Aerated concrete, as most building materials, shrinks in 2-3 months after installation. The lack of reinforcement leads to cracking of the masonry and the appearance of cracks on the walls, as well as to a decrease in their bearing capacity. Reinforcement with basalt mesh has a specific functional purpose, namely:
- reduces the reduction of vibration processes on the building;
- protects the waterproofing layer;
- increases impact resistance.
Reinforcement of aerated concrete is an individual process, which is divided into two options;
- full reinforcement;
- partial reinforcement.
Regardless of which option is relevant for the home. There are obligatory areas that can be reinforced with basalt mesh. Among them, we note:
- initial laying on the ground floor;
- the lower part of the window openings;
- lintels and overlap areas.
If the distance between the blocks is at least 300 cm, the masonry mesh is installed in two or three places. With a smaller interval, only window openings and areas under them are subject to reinforcement. If the laying is continuous, then the mesh is fixed in the center. Walls that are constantly exposed to wind load or mechanical factors must be reinforced.
Polymer or basalt mesh for aerated concrete has the following advantages:
- long-term operation – more than a hundred years;
- ease of installation – light weight, ease of installation, flexibility and elasticity;
- the ability to withstand heavy loads;
- lack of cold bridges in walls reinforced with basalt mesh;
- affordable cost.
There are two types of basalt mesh for reinforcement:
- roll – used on a smooth surface, the width of the canvas is about 100 cm;
- narrow mesh, it is called serpyanka – strengthens the joints between the canvases, fits in the corners, differs in different sizes from 40 to 200 cm.
When choosing a mesh for reinforcing aerated concrete, purchase material with a margin of at least 10%. Reinforced canvas makes the aerated concrete masonry better, and the lack of reinforcement leads to the formation of cracks.
There are three options for reinforcing brickwork:
The mesh is used for transverse reinforcement. Mesh reinforcement increases the cost of the structure and increases labor costs for its construction. However, it is the transverse reinforcement that increases the bearing capacity of the walls by 50%..
To reinforce brickwork with your own hands, follow these steps:
1. Place the net on the previously laid row of bricks. Connect it to the solution.
2. Place another layer of mortar on the base so that it completely covers the mesh..
3. Continue laying the brick by pressing it into the grid and adjusting the level position. The reinforcing belt has a special clamp that holds the brick, tightly connecting it to the mortar.
Please note that the technology and correct laying of the basalt mesh directly depends on the type of brick used. For example, for brick M150 of silicate type, the mesh is laid every five rows, and for double bricks – after four, for ceramic options – after three.
The mesh version of reinforcement is used only in the case of using high grade bricks and mortar, which does not provide the maximum strength of the masonry. The mesh reinforcement used in this case is at least 0.1% of the volume of the masonry.
The interval for laying the reinforcing mesh is calculated individually and is determined by the load on the building, wall material, and the presence of insulation. The minimum value of the reinforcement mesh diameter is 0.3 cm. The reinforcement for horizontal joints should be thicker in diameter by about 0.6 cm..
The transverse version of reinforcement is based on laying a mesh between the rows of bricks. The diameter of the rods in this case is from 0.5 to 0.8 cm.The interval of reinforcement is from two to five rows.
When choosing a row, take into account the height of the bricks, the necessary strength of the walls, their displacement or further deformation. If the mesh is replaced with wire, perform reinforcement in two rows at once, laying it perpendicular.
A special mortar based on high quality cement will help to strengthen the brickwork. Basalt mesh is laid on a brick in such a way that its edges protrude from the wall to half a centimeter.
Longitudinal reinforcement allows you to strengthen the inter-wall partitions in the house before bending and lateral loads. In this case, the reinforcement is laid along the masonry for additional reinforcement. There are two options for such reinforcement:
To fix the elements to each other, use a welding machine, as well as rods and anchors.
Vertical reinforcement will help strengthen brick structures. In this case, special elements in the form of corners, transverse lintels and rods help to reinforce the brickwork..
Basalt reinforcing mesh is relevant only in the case of transverse reinforcement. In addition, this method is most effective when performing brickwork. The quality of the resulting building is also determined by the type of solution, the option of the selected masonry, the presence or absence of insulation. In any case, reinforcement is a very important component that directly determines the duration of the operation of a brick, stone or aerated concrete building..
Basalt mesh installation video: