Construction of houses

We make construction foam concrete with our own hands. Instruction for the production of foam concrete

Foam concrete is a popular building material with good heat and sound insulation characteristics. Independent production of foam concrete allows you to reduce material costs several times. There are several construction technologies, according to which foam concrete is produced. We suggest that you familiarize yourself with their features and methods of implementation..

Table of contents:

Scope of use, types and advantages of home foam concrete

The popularity of foam concrete in the construction industry is explained by its following advantages:

1. Economic feasibility.

The production process does not require special material investments, the material is made from available materials, and the possibility of home production significantly reduces its cost.

2. Vapor permeability of foam concrete.

Due to the fact that the material allows air to pass through, a favorable and healthy atmosphere is created in the room, mold and mildew do not form.

3. Environmental safety.

Foam concrete is an environmentally friendly material, since no toxic substances are added to it during the production process. The main components are sand, water and cement. Some manufacturers improve the performance of the material by adding plasticizers and hardeners..

4. The material is lightweight.

This advantage greatly simplifies the process of transportation and laying of foam concrete. In addition, a massive foundation is not needed for such a house, and construction work is being carried out even in earthquake-prone areas..

5. Fast installation.

The use of foam concrete as a building material for the construction of walls allows you to build a house in 2-3 months.

6. High heat and sound insulation performance.

The production of walls from foam concrete reduces the cost of the total cost of the building, since the cost of purchasing heat and sound insulation materials is reduced.

7. High level of fire safety.

Foam concrete does not burn and does not support combustion, in addition, it prevents the spread of flame.

8. Versatility of further finishing.

Walls made of foam concrete are putty, plaster, sheathed with wood, clapboard or siding. There are no restrictions in this regard..

Among the disadvantages of the material, we note the high porosity, which, on the one hand, improves the thermal insulation performance, and on the other hand, reduces the strength. Therefore, the transportation of foam concrete is carried out with extreme caution. Walls made of foam blocks are reinforced without fail, in order to avoid the appearance of cracks on their surface after shrinkage. In addition, foam block walls need finishing. The lack of external finishing leads to the absorption of carbon dioxide by the material and a decrease in its strength. High-quality exterior finish quickly solves this disadvantage. The best option is to use brick as a finishing layer.

The scope of use of foam blocks is not limited to the construction industry. The material is used for the construction of walls, supporting structures in country houses, residential and office buildings. In addition, foam blocks are widely used in the process of warming already erected walls, improving sound insulation, and when erecting interior partitions. With the help of this material, old buildings are reconstructed and repaired, their number of storeys is increased and the sound insulation of ceilings is improved..

Foam blocks differ in density and in the number of pores in the material. To designate this indicator, the letter D is used. The recipe for the production of the material directly determines its quality and brand, and these indicators are the main ones in the field of using foam blocks. In relation to the place of application, the material is divided into:

  • foam blocks, from which the internal partitions D100-300 are erected;
  • heat-insulating material D400-500;
  • structural and thermal insulation D600-900;
  • structural foam blocks D1000-1600.

Foam blocks of the highest density have the lowest thermal insulation performance and are used for reinforcing floors and structural work. Their cost is much higher than that of D100-300 foam blocks.

Please note that the humidity of the air during the laying of the material should not exceed 60%. Otherwise, a vapor barrier film is applied to the inner surface of the material. For laying the material, both a conventional cement-based solution and a special glue are used. The use of an adhesive composition has great advantages, since in this case, cold bridges do not form inside the walls. In addition, the amount of adhesive for fixing foam blocks is much less than cement.

DIY foam block press

The standard two-stage technology for the manufacture of foam blocks involves the use of equipment in the form of:

  • a foam generator and a compressor unit supplying air;
  • mixer, at home, is replaced by a concrete mixer;
  • forms for pouring the solution and its hardening;
  • additional devices in the form of a pressure gauge and pumping equipment.

Before starting work, prepare drawings of equipment for the production of foam concrete. Next, purchase the module – the most expensive component. This part of the device converts the foaming agent into a foamy substance, feeding it to the solution.

The delivery module serves as a place for pouring the foam solution. Any tank of a suitable size will cope with this function. Conversion module – converts the solution to foam. Dosing equipment – delivers foam in a certain density and quantity, determines the brand of the material obtained.

Among the main parts of the foam generator, we note the elements in the form:

  • nozzles;
  • docking flange;
  • suction pipe;
  • body part;
  • displacement cameras;
  • diffuser.

For self-manufacture of this device, prepare two pipes, a pump, a hose, and a valve. In addition, stock up on a welding machine and drawings, according to which further work is carried out..

The factory pipe for the foaming agent has a peculiar structure, one part of it has a narrow structure, gradually expanding. Thus, the speed of passage of the liquid through the pipe increases, maximizing at the outlet.

Next, make a foam cartridge and a chamber for the turbulent connection of components. To do this, weld two pipes to one pipe. One of them is located in the end part, and the second is a foam supply, with a corner. Make sure the nozzles are at right angles to the tube.

Install two valves on each of the branch pipes:

  • shut-off type – with its help, the supply of the foam former is stopped;
  • adjusting type – adjusts the speed and amount of supplied foam.

Regulating valves are needed only for the initial setting, they are not used in the future. Recommendation: the side branch pipe should be twenty percent larger in diameter than the end piece..

The next stage is work on the foam cartridge. The second pipe blank is equipped with a branch pipe, which ensures the output of the finished composition. A funnel is installed at the outlet pipe, which reduces the rate of exit of the foam concrete mixture. Install a filter inside the workpiece that converts the emulsion into foam. You can buy a ready-made filter or make it yourself from a regular dishwashing brush.

Please note that in this case, use a wire-type mesh, not a spiral one. Tamp them along the entire length of the tube, in order to prevent the ruff from falling out, additionally strengthen it with a washer.

Next, the mixing chamber is connected to the foam board. In this case, the installed pipes are located at opposite ends. To improve the speed of transporting the compound through the pipe, install an element in the form of a nozzle or a jet washer between them. Please note that the second option, although cheaper, is worse, since it reduces the efficiency of the device by 30%.

Connect the compressor unit to the end piece and the connection chamber. Please note that the compressor power must be at least 5 atm, in addition, it must have a receiver, a pressure gauge and a pressure reducing valve..

Place the container on the floor, connect the hose to it for supplying foam to the mixer. Connect the resulting installation to a pump that will simplify the supply of foam. This device is not inferior in power to a purchased installation, but its cost is 3-4 times lower.

The next stage is the construction of forms for foam blocks. For these purposes, various materials are suitable, such as wood, plywood, steel, polymers. The main requirement is to create a solid and even surface that is not prone to deformation. To make a mold, follow these steps:

  • calculate the size;
  • create a drawing.

Standard foam blocks in length, width, height in a proportional plan are 4-2-1. By adhering to this ratio, a material is obtained that is suitable for the construction of walls and convenient dressing, without cutting the blocks. That is, with a mold depth of 15 cm, it will be 30 and 60 cm in width and height..

In the individual production of foam blocks, thirty forms are enough for the foam block. Mount the partitions so that most of them are on top. Thus, the foam blocks dry faster and gain strength evenly. The option of manufacturing multilevel forms is possible.

First, build the bottom of the mold, firmly fix the walls on it and install the removable partitions inside. We recommend staying on a collapsible version of the form, thus, the size of the foam block changes, if necessary. When making a mold from plywood, connect the parts together with nails and choose its laminated versions. Homemade forms allow you to make foam blocks of the required size and shape. Please note that before pouring foam concrete into molds, wooden products are preliminarily covered with a film, otherwise, the wood will absorb moisture from the solution and deform the characteristics of the resulting product.

Step-by-step instructions for making foam concrete

For the manufacture of foam blocks, you will need special equipment and a mixture. The composition of the solution for foam concrete includes ingredients in the form of:

  • 310 kg of high quality cement;
  • half a ton of fine sand;
  • 210 liters of water;
  • 1-2% foaming agent in relation to the mass of cement;
  • modifying additives.

To make a foaming agent at home, mix the components in the form of:

  • 150 grams of caustic soda;
  • 1 kilogram of rosin;
  • 60 grams of wood glue.

The foaming agent does not have to be made at home, the option of ready-made formulations is possible. The instructions for the foamer for foam blocks indicate the proportion of addition to obtain material of a particular brand.

For self-manufacturing of the foaming agent, follow the instructions:

1. Prepare the adhesive solution. Fill the glue with water in a ratio of one to ten, leave for a day. Next, heat the container with the composition to a temperature of sixty degrees, stirring constantly, the mass should become homogeneous.

2. Rosin soap is prepared as follows: bring the sodium to a boil, add rosin, boil the composition for 120 minutes until smooth. Rosin is pre-crushed.

When the soap cools down to sixty degrees, combine the compositions with each other in a ratio of one to six.

Pour the composition into a foam generator to obtain a high density foam. The optimum foaming rate is eighty grams per cubic meter. At a lower rate, the quality of the finished material and its thermal insulation characteristics deteriorate..

The quality of the foam is determined in this way, fill the bucket with the composition, turn it over. If the foam is tightly held and does not flow out, then the proportions are correct..

The scheme for the manufacture of foam blocks looks like this:

  • supply of sand with cement;
  • adding water;
  • ingestion of the composition into the porizer;
  • feeding aerated concrete into molds.

Please note that quite often the first 3-5 foam blocks do not turn out to be of the desired quality. This is due to the following reasons:

  • the complexity of adding components in the required dosage;
  • decrease, increase in water level;
  • a large amount of a foam former;
  • wrong kneading time;
  • determination of the time for curing;
  • selection of material drying mode.

By experimenting, all of these indicators lead to the norm. Further recipes for the production of the material are constantly used. Defective foam blocks are used to backfill the floor.

Foam blocks of brand d900 and higher are easier to manufacture, since they contain a small number of pores, however, they have less thermal insulation properties..

Foam concrete do it yourself video: