Construction of houses

Log felling: methods, advantages and disadvantages

Houses built from a log house are distinguished primarily by their environmental friendliness. It is a pleasure to be in such a room, since the air in it is fresh and the atmosphere is comfortable. There are several technologies for felling a log house, we will talk about the advantages and disadvantages of felling a log house with our own hands..

Table of contents:

Log felling: advantages and technology

A log house, during the felling of which all norms and technologies were adhered to, has the following advantages:

  • high environmental friendliness of the room that is made of it – at the same time, the tree is a regulator of humidity and temperature, when the humidity rises, the tree absorbs moisture, and when it decreases, it gives it away, while in the winter it is very warm in the log house, and in the summer it is cool;

  • logs act as a filter – which protects the room from an aggressive environment;
  • it is not required to carry out additional interior decoration of the house from a log house, since the appearance of the walls is attractive in itself;
  • for outdoor decoration, it is enough to cover the tree with special mixtures that will preserve it for a long time.

Manual cutting at home is a costly process both in terms of time and finance. To implement this construction technology, a vast experience of work is required. Only in this case, the result will be satisfactory..

At the beginning of construction work, logs are selected in relation to a given diameter. This process is quite laborious, but mandatory, since the integrity of the entire structure, its uniform shrinkage and the appearance of the building depend on the quality of the joints of the logs..

Photo of a log house:

The next, no less important step is the processing of logs, which are needed to build a house. All logs are sanded, barked off and shaved off. To ensure maximum stability of the logs against external stimuli, a maximum of 50 mm of the layer is removed from them. In order for the blockhouse to rise evenly, its first crown should be correctly laid.

The final stage of construction involves the external treatment of the log house using toning impregnations, which improve the natural qualities of wood and protect it from ultraviolet radiation..

Log felling: basic methods – a brief description

1. Construction from a wild log or dark forest is the use of bark-free wood trunks. An ax and a plane are used to cut logs. Each of the barrels undergoes thorough, exclusively hand grinding and processing. At the same time, grooves, parts for the lock connection and other elements of the log house are cut out.

The main advantage of using this technology is the fact that after processing, the logs are left with protective wood, of a more compacted nature, which helps to improve the resistance of the logs to external factors. It takes a lot of time and effort to implement this technology, but the result and service life of the house fully justifies all the costs..

2. The use of rounded logs in construction is characterized by the construction of houses from logs with a diameter of 200 to 500 mm. The most successful, in this case, is the groove connection. For the manufacture of logs, wood with a high density is used. For harvesting a tree, choose the period from December to March. The drying technology is carried out in a log house. In order to avoid cracks, it is recommended to equip a cut for compensating purposes, which will help the moisture evaporate without a trace. In the process of manufacturing rounded logs, these felling methods are used:

  • the Canadian bowl method – it has the most important advantage, which consists in the presence of self-wedging type connecting elements on each log, thus, the logs are very tightly adjacent to each other and a corner joint of high density and with good thermal insulation characteristics is formed, no gaps are formed after shrinkage, for caulking which requires the use of sealants, building a house using this technology is an expensive, but high-quality and fully justified measure;

  • The most common and accessible type of logging is the use of a Russian bowl, this type of logging requires the use of round-shaped hewn logs with crown grooves in the shape of a semicircle, due to which the logs adjoin well to each other, to fold the corners, they cut a bowl in the shape of a crescent and leave the log on 200-400 mm, this technology for manufacturing a log house has the highest strength characteristics.

Logging methods and technology

We suggest that you familiarize yourself with the main methods of Russian felling, which were possessed by the ancient carpenters and for the choice of which the building materials used in the construction process, the type of building, its purpose, climatic and relief features of the region, etc. were taken into account..

The main elements of the connection should be highlighted:

  • key;
  • thorns;
  • grooves;
  • dowels;
  • wedge-shaped cutting;
  • grooves;
  • bowls.

1. Cutting roach.

This type of felling comes from the old words for roundness. The extreme sections of the logs that lend themselves to cutting become rounded or bowl-shaped after cutting. Each subsequent log is placed directly into the previously cut bowl-shaped connection. In the laid log, a bowl is also cut down and in this way a frame is built. For a tighter fit of the upper fabric to the lower one, a groove or groove in a longitudinal or semicircular shape is selected in one of them. After the final assembly of the log house, moss is laid in the grooves, which acts as a sealant for the cracks. To increase the strength of the connection of the logs, the bowl is arranged at a certain distance from the end section of the log. The protruding part of the log house is called the remainder, it is thanks to it that the tenacious connection of the logs occurs to each other.

The longer the length of the remainder, the higher the strength of the connection is obtained, and the more material is required for the construction of a log house.

There are two ways to cut the bowl and groove. The first option involves cutting them down on the surface of the lower log, in the second – on the upper one. The use of the second felling method is characterized by higher reliability. Since in this case, precipitation is not allowed to enter the inner part of the groove, which means that the tree does not get wet, does not deform and does not collapse. A log house made according to this type of felling will last more than a hundred years.

The person involved in the construction of such a log house must adhere to the maximum accuracy in cutting four bowls on the surface of the upper logs. The shape of each log is cylindrical, so two logs connected by this technology look like two intersecting cylinders. They have a complex and closed line of intersection, and to build such a curve, you need to work very hard. In addition, a special tool in the form of a scribble or line is required..

When cutting a bowl on the surface of the lower log, the line moves apart by half the diameter of the upper logs. Further, it is installed in such a way as to touch the upper log with one end, and the lower one with the second. The surface of sharp claws is guided downward, and the upper claws slide on the upper log.

An ax or adze is used to cut out the bowl in the lower logs. First, large pieces of wood are cut down, this is due to the accuracy of the blows of the master. When the master approaches the pre-drawn line, he begins to work with caution and gradually removes small layers of wood..

2. The method of cutting into ocher wood is also ancient. It consists of a certain form of felling located in the logs. Based on the technology of this felling method, it is required to cut both the upper and lower logs, while they have the shape of a rectangle. At the same time, the strength of the joint is significantly improved, but its tightness suffers. This method is common in places where there is no high-quality forest and buildings are erected from small-diameter logs. In addition, this connection option is popular when laying the first or first three crowns. The method of cutting into the ochryanka is well suited for the construction of outbuildings or buildings for unheated purposes..

3. The method of cutting into the paw has been known since the fifteenth century. It assumes a residue-free connection of logs. Overhead boards are used to sew up the end sections. It is used in the construction of wooden buildings based on four-rope beams. This method of felling is much more complicated than the previous one and is performed only by those craftsmen who have extensive experience in carpentry. It is required to carry out an accurate calculation and markup of logs.

4. Run-through method of felling involves the use of thin logs, which are installed in the gaps between logs of a larger diameter, thus adjusting the entire structure. Installed logs are pre-cut from both sides.

5. Cutting is used in the case when it is not required to achieve a tight connection of the logs, but it is enough to have small gaps between the logs. Using this method, mills were equipped.

6. The pillar felling method involves the arrangement of household buildings. Four logs are installed in the ground in the form of pillars, while they have previously prepared and cut grooves. The end sections of the logs are equipped with spikes that form a tenon-groove connection.

7. The needle method of Russian felling is used in the presence of logs, the diameter of one side of which is twice the diameter of the other side. With the help of this method, outbuildings are also erected. For their strong connection, this method was developed. The logs are stacked alternately with the larger side to the smaller side. To connect the butt sections, the by-catch method was used. In this case, the thin part of the log was hewn and took the shape of a needle, which was installed in the thicker part of the second log..

8. For cutting walls from a bar, the method of cutting into bandaging is used. A spike connection is cut out in one bar, and a groove in the second. To avoid displacement of the rims, holes are drilled in the bars using a brace. They are driven into pins, ensuring the strength of the structure..

9. Semi-timber felling – used in the process of knitting four-rope type beams. At the junction, the beams are cut to the center, then they are cleaved using a trim. To fix the crowns between themselves, pins and a tenon-groove type of connection are used.

Manual felling: Canadian technology

All houses made according to the Canadian felling technology are carried out only by hand. This method of felling has many advantages, the main one of which is that the appearance of the tree, namely the sapwood, is completely preserved in the building. The thickness of this layer is no more than five centimeters, but it is very important for wood. Since it is this layer that has the highest strength and provides reliable protection of the tree from the negative effects of the external environment.

Due to the fact that the sapwood is preserved, the service life of the building made using Canadian technology is significantly increased. There is an improvement in heat exchange in the building: in winter, heat does not escape through the sapwood, and in summer – coolness.

This method of felling was invented in Russia, but gradually became widespread in Canada, which is why it was named so.

Advantages of a Canadian hand-cut log house:

1. Scrupulous selection of each log, its thorough sanding, manual shaving.

2. All work is carried out exclusively by hand.

3. The use of high-precision adjustment of logs, the absence of even minimal gaps, an attractive appearance of the walls in the form of a solid mass, behind which the surface of the insulation is not visible.

4. Preservation of the outer wood layer, which has a positive effect on the life of the entire building.

5. Higher resistance to mold, mildew, UV and moisture.

6. Self-filtration of indoor air, creating a unique indoor climate.

7. Attractiveness of appearance, each log has an individual bend.

8. The service life of a house made according to Canadian felling technology exceeds a hundred years..

The Canadian technology of felling consists in the presence of nattes on the cup. In addition, Canadian technology assumes the presence of thorns, due to which the house is insulated, and even after shrinkage, cracks do not appear in the building..

Canadian felling is based on precision logs and a trapezoidal bowl shape. Thanks to this, it turns out to create self-wedging joints, which are distinguished by strength and high durability..

It is more profitable to build a log house using Canadian technology from large and massive logs. Before starting the operation of the building, it is imperative to wait at least 12, and preferably 24 months, after construction.

Log cabin video: