Construction of houses

Laying bituminous shingles

Bituminous shingles are used for roofing because of the many advantages over other roofing materials. Its main advantage is its duration in operation, reaching fifty years. Let’s talk about the advantages, varieties and features of laying bituminous tiles further..

Table of contents:

Bituminous shingles – characteristics and advantages

Another name for shingles is soft roofing, shingles or shingles. It is a modern building material based on the use of fiberglass coated with modified bitumen mortar and stone dressing..

The appearance of bituminous shingles resembles a flat sheet, small in size, with cutouts at one end..

There are many forms and varieties of shingles;

  • triangular;
  • rectangular;
  • diamond-shaped;
  • hexagonal;
  • square;
  • oval, etc..

In the process of making tiles, stone dressing is used, which determines the color of the tiles themselves. Therefore, shingles are characterized by a variety of colors, textures and shades..

Fiberglass or fiberglass, which is impregnated with a mixture of bitumen on both sides, acts as a basis for bitumen shingles. The main task of the base is to strengthen the slab and give it strength. It is she who is the connector of two layers of oxidized bitumen with a certain amount of modifiers and various kinds of additives that make the tile strong, plastic and resistant to deformation..

To cover the top side of bituminous shingles, mineral chips, colored basalt granulate or shale sprinkles are used, which makes the material colored and protects it from external irritants, especially sunlight. The reverse side of the shingles is treated with adhesive bitumen, which is covered with a polyethylene film.

Therefore, the structure of shingles consists of:

  • colored stone granules;
  • modified high quality bitumen;
  • high-strength fiberglass;
  • self-adhesive layer;
  • polyethylene films.

The use of bituminous shingles is possible on all roofs with a slope of at least twelve degrees. It is used both in the manufacture of a new roof and in the restoration of an old one. Perfectly covers the roofs of residential buildings, cottages, industrial and public buildings.

Among the advantages of using flexible bituminous shingles are:

  • the material used in the installation practically leaves no waste, even when arranging roofs with a complex geometric structure, therefore, it turns out to save money on the purchase of tiles;
  • on the roof, which is installed with bitumen shingles, you can not hear the noise of rain or snow;
  • resistant to corrosion and decay, unlike metal roofs;

  • resistant to biological microorganisms such as fungus, moss or lichens;
  • resistant to chemicals;
  • when using bituminous shingles, under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, it becomes a homogeneous layer that is very resistant to moisture;
  • differs from metal tiles in that it is not able to conduct electricity, thereby creating safe conditions during a thunderstorm for people living in the house;
  • does not require additional maintenance during operation;
  • resistant to exposure to high and low temperatures, well tolerates a sharp change in climate;
  • resistant to strong gusts of wind;
  • able to cover roofs of any configuration, shape and complexity;
  • resistant to deformation of the roof during its operation;
  • in the presence of minor damage, they are quickly eliminated by installing a separate tile;
  • has a low weight and is packed in a convenient container, thanks to which it is easily transported to the place of installation;
  • does not require a special tool for installation;
  • has excellent performance characteristics, has been used for over 50 years.

Bituminous tile photo:

Despite the huge number of advantages, bituminous shingles have some disadvantages. The first of them is the inability to use bituminous tiles on the roof, the slope of which is less than twelve degrees..

It requires a continuous flooring for laying, so you will need to spend money on its purchase and installation. Repair of such a roof requires special work skills and a special tool, since during operation the tiles are glued together. It is required to pay special attention to the installation of shingles, since when using the wrong technology, the waterproofing and roofing system is disturbed. Therefore, first of all, it is required to equip a reliable crate to fix the tiles.

The cost of shinglas shingles is much higher than laying, for example, metal shingles, although a large number of its advantages, and, in particular, an attractive appearance, fully justify its price.

Bituminous tile roofing – preparatory stage of installation

Before starting the installation work, you should take care of the preparation of the base on which the bitumen shingles will be laid. The main requirements for the base are:

  • its dryness;
  • rigidity;
  • evenness;
  • the presence of continuous flooring;
  • no drops, except for small irregularities up to 2 mm.

Large-panel flooring is installed with seams and is fixed with nails or self-tapping screws. If plywood is used as the main material for laying the tiles, then it is required to leave up to five millimeters of gaps, which compensates for thermal expansion.

When installing wooden flooring, pay attention to the fact that the annual rings are installed with the convex part towards the bottom. Make a selection with the planks to gradually and evenly change the thickness of the coating. Thicker boards are laid at the eaves. Butt sections should be located on the support. To cover them, nails are used, in a minimum amount of four pieces. If wet wood is used, then each side of the board is fixed with self-tapping screws..

To strengthen the eaves overhang, the installation of eaves planks will be required, the procedure for laying them is rather complicated and requires the location of their rib part on a solid base. To fix this material, special roofing nails are used, which are hammered in relation to a checkerboard pattern, the installation step is from 12 to 16 cm, and with an overlap of 2-4 cm.

The next step in the preparation of the base is the installation of the underlay. Each installation of roofing equipment requires an underlay that is installed over the entire roof area. Valley or eaves require the installation of a self-adhesive material on which the base will be attached.

The laying of such material in the valleys is carried out over a total width of 100 cm, half a meter in each section of the slope. If possible, try to install a solid carpet over the total area of ​​the valley. If it is not possible to install the lining base in this way, then take care of the presence of an overlap, the seam of which requires mandatory gluing. Average overlap size is 25-35 cm.

A self-adhesive base is installed along the eaves overhang, as in the valley. It is laid directly on the cornice section with an addition of 60 cm, from the inside of the cornice to the wall. It is this option for laying the lining base that can prevent the appearance of leaks, condensation and other unpleasant phenomena that very often appear precisely in the area of ​​the cornice zone..

To cover the rest of the surface, a standard underlay is installed, which is distinguished by the presence of mechanical fixation. The material is laid from the top down. The standard size of the overlap is 10 cm. The underlay is fixed to the base using special zinc nails with a wide head. Spread overlapping areas with bitumen mastic.

Use metal end strips to reinforce the gable overhangs. They are installed directly on the backing layer, with an overlap of 3-5 cm and fixed with special roofing nails. Before proceeding to laying the tiles, take care of smearing this area with mastic..

Preparation for the installation of bituminous shingles involves the preparation of the valley sections. On them, bituminous shingles are mounted in two ways:

  • open;
  • undercut.

The first option involves the installation of a valley carpet, which is mounted along the axial part of the valley. Further, this carpet is smeared with bituminous mastic. Please note that you need to smear not only the entire perimeter of the carpet, but also the surface near it by ten centimeters from all sides.

If the valley carpet is not available, it is replaced with steel sheet, which has an anti-corrosion coating. The front part of the carpet is fixed with roofing nails, with an installation step of 200-250 mm. Try to arrange the carpet in such a way as to avoid overlap. If this is not possible, install the carpet with an overlap of 300 mm and take care of gluing the seam..

The second option involves the use of an undercut. It does not require wasting time installing an end carpet. The tiles are laid in a chaotic manner over the entire roof area, including the valleys. The upper part of the shingles is fixed with roofing nails, and the lower part is glued. Do not nail down 300 mm near the valley. When the installation of the tiles in this area is completed, using the laces, two coated lines are beaten off and the ordinary tiles are cut along the axis of the valley. To improve the quality of the installation, place a small board under it to help prevent accidental damage to the waterproofing layer.

This is followed by the process of smearing each tile with mastic and gluing it. A gutter is installed, with a width of 100 to 150 mm, in relation to the location of the roof. When installing tiles in a building located in a forest, the width of the gutter increases by several centimeters.

Bituminous shingles – installation technology

Marking lines are used as a guide when laying bituminous tiles. With their help, the installation is faster and better, and the tiles are leveled both horizontally and vertically..

The vertical line is drawn according to the width of the standard tile, and the horizontal line is applied every five tiles..

Recommendations for installing bituminous shingles:

1. In the process of arranging the roof, it is not recommended to use tiles of different colors, except when it is conceived by the general style of the exterior, different codes, markings or the date of manufacture.

2. To minimize color imbalance, open six packs of shingles and scatter them..

3. When roofing works in cold weather, it is required to keep the tiles indoors for about 24 hours, with a minimum temperature of twenty degrees. The tiles are fed in batches of five packs.

4. Use a heat dryer to heat the self-adhesive strip..

5. Special wooden underlays will help to avoid accidental cutting of the underlay when cutting shingles on the roof..

6. Use the special slots to move on the roof. Otherwise, there is a risk of damage to the appearance of the roof..

7. Fastening of each ordinary tile to the roof surface is carried out with special galvanized nails with wide heads. The number of their use is affected by the angle of inclination of the roof. The higher it is, the more nails will be needed, as the load on the building increases during strong winds..

8. Please note that during the arrival of the nails, their head should not cut into the surface of the tile, but should be on its surface.

The starting strip is called a universal tile that has edged petals. It is installed directly on the underlay carpet, with an indent from its edge by two centimeters. On the surface of long slopes, the first row begins to fit from the central part. Thus, the leveling of the horizontal part of the roof will improve..

Install with diagonal stripes. The installation of the second row is carried out from the central part to any other side, Make sure that the lower edge of the petal is level with the upper masonry, but at the same time there should be a shift of the tiles by half of the masonry.

The third row requires the same offset as the second. All shingles begin to fit from the central part to the side sections. To ensure the highest quality protection from atmospheric precipitation, glue the tiles with mastic.

How to care for shingles

1. Monitor the condition of the roof in the autumn-spring period.

2. If debris, twigs, leaves or other objects appear on the roof surface, remove them using a soft bristled brush..

3. It is forbidden to use sharp tools for cleaning the roof..

4. To ensure the free flow of water on the surface of the roof, clean the gutters and funnels..

5. During snowfall, remove snow from the surface layer by layer, leave a small amount of it to protect the roof from the wind.

6. Pay attention to the condition of the steel sections of the roof, butt parts. Avoid cracks or crevices in the surface.

Shingles video: