Hidden wiring allows you to aesthetically arrange the wiring network over the area of the room. At the same time, switches and sockets protrude minimally beyond the level of the walls. Such wiring is stationary and is planned at the stage of overhaul. This article will tell you how to make a hidden wiring correctly.
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There are two opinions about which wiring is considered hidden. Some experts say that the hidden one is the one that is not visible. It is laid in a groove or mounted under the skin. Others argue that hidden wiring must also include cables placed in tubes and channels..
Consider the first, classic version, in which all specialists are similar. That is, the placement of wires in the thickness of building structures. Namely, in partitions, ceilings, floors, wall voids and suspended ceilings.
It is necessary to proceed with the installation of hidden wiring during repair work. Ideally – before applying the finishing coat of putty.
Usually the wires are placed in a specially made strobe. These grooves are made with chasers and a grinder. For household repairs and a small amount of work, use a perforator or a scalpel with a hammer.
Wiring must have a second sheath or be placed in protective pipes or ducts.
The most important requirement for hidden wiring is fire safety. Its installation in wood and flammable structures requires special care. Therefore, the wires are placed in steel or PVC pipes..
It is necessary that the elements of the cable system are easily replaceable. This rule is rarely observed. And the manipulation of replacing and adding wiring forces to destroy the coating of the structure.
Wiring is carried out vertically and horizontally relative to one of the walls. This will save materials and money, simplify the work process. And for future repairs will make it easier to find the network of wires.
Before installation, a plan of the cable system must be drawn up. It will not be superfluous to indicate the location of all electrical boxes. The hidden wiring scheme is carried out and saved for the future. When it changes in the process of work, appropriate adjustments are made to the plan.
The electrical safety of hidden wiring is important. Experts advise using three-core cables. And connect the yellow-green ground wire in the future, if this is not provided initially.
You also need to take care of the residual current device..
Installation of hidden wiring is carried out in a certain sequence.
First, the type of network branching is determined: boxed or daisy chain.
First, it involves laying one cable over the area of the entire apartment. Another wire is diverted from it to each room. This branching is carried out in a junction box..
The European type daisy chain connection involves two wires. One is for sockets, the other is for lamps. They exit from the switchboard into each room. Which contains a switch for each hidden wiring cable.
After determining the location of the luminaires and branch boxes for hidden wiring switches.
It is necessary to think over the path of the wires. They are placed 15 cm below the ceiling or 10 cm from a beam or cornice. The distance to the door and window connectors must be at least 10 cm. Routes to the sockets are laid at their level. Rises are made perpendicular to the floor to the places for lamps and sockets.
It is recommended to avoid crossing wires. Remember, chipping load-bearing walls is prohibited. Therefore, in such places, fastening in a thick layer of plaster is used..
The lined diagram on paper is transferred to the surface of the structure.
When installing hidden wiring in a house, it is optimal to use a cable with a cross section of 2.5 mm for VVG sockets. It is based on double-shielded copper conductors. And for the connection for lighting devices – PBGPP with a diameter of up to 6 mm. It is a flat wire for hidden and exposed wiring, which consists of one flexible core.
All types of switchboards are suitable for wiring. The same can be said for sockets and switches. True, the socket for hidden wiring takes up less space and looks more aesthetically pleasing..
Boxes for hidden wiring are selected based on the type of walls. They are available for hollow and solid structures. Sometimes for this purpose, socket boxes are used, which are closed with homemade lids..
To securely connect the ends of the wires, purchase PPE plastic caps or terminal blocks.
A chipping tool is required to mount the cable. A hammer drill is enough for a home electrician for this task. For work on concrete, you will need equipment with a capacity of 1.5 kW. You will also need a cable cutter and a plastering knife..
And to fasten the wire in the grooves, stock up on dowel clamps, an assembly strip and alabaster mortar.
After determining the type and drawing up a wiring diagram, the stage of its installation begins..
Install a distribution box at the point where the cable enters the apartment..
If the repair involves plaster of 0.9 cm or more, fix the wires in it. Sometimes wires are laid along the walls and covered with a baseboard. It does not really save money, but it puts electrical communications at risk..
It is safer and more practical to place hidden guides in furrows. In order not to stumble upon metal fittings, first check the place for the wiring with a metal detector.
The width of the groove should accommodate all the wires. Then, due to friction, they lie firmly in the channel and do not fall out of it. The depth of the furrow corresponds to the thickness of the cable plus the space for leveling with plaster. Usually 8-10 mm is enough.
Places for sockets and boxes for hidden wiring are made with a perforator with a “crown”. If the power of the tool is not enough, then the nozzle is replaced with a drill..
For reliability, the wires are supposed to be placed in cable ducts, which must initially be fixed in the strobe. And the wires themselves are pulled inward using flexible wire.
If additional protection is not used, then the wiring is attached in the furrows with alabaster.
The ends of the wires no longer than 10-15 cm are tucked into the socket boxes.
Sockets and their outer frames are installed.
Wire cores at wiring crossings are connected in junction boxes. They protect the ends of the cables from dust, moisture and mechanical stress..
The strobe is plastered from above according to the general level.
It usually takes 2-3 business days to replace internal wiring in one room..
Particular attention should be paid to the electrical network in a wooden house..
The ideal option is the integrity of the cable without the use of boxes. So each wire from the machine goes to a separate end to the load point.
It is necessary to remove the wiring from the flammable structure as much as possible. Therefore, laying wires over a wooden base is prohibited. And impregnation of wood with non-combustible substances is useless over time..
The wiring is laid in a metal sleeve. To avoid endangering the house in the event of a fire. The pipes are tightly welded together. Or bolted.
The plastic counterpart is not as durable. And rodents can feast on it. If the wiring is still in plastic pipes, protect it with non-combustible materials. For example, concrete, alabaster or plaster.
The cable should take up no more than 40% of the space in the pipe. And the thickness of its wall is selected based on the cross-section of the cable. So for copper wires:
- with a core diameter of 4 mm – the metal of the sleeve is at least 2.8 mm,
- from 6 to 10 mm – 3.2 mm,
- from 25 to 35 mm – 4 mm.
Requirements for aluminum wires are two times less. So with a cable diameter of 7 cm, a pipe with a thickness of 4 mm is required.
Sockets are placed in metal sockets.
The wiring is carried out using non-combustible wires. For example, VVGng, RKGM, NYM and VVGng LS.
All metal pipes are grounded. To slow down corrosive processes, the metal is covered with a special paint.
Copper sleeve is more expensive, but more durable and easier to install than steel counterpart.
For safety, it is necessary to install two panels: with automatic devices and switches.
The electrical network is thought out so that there is access to it, without destroying the wooden frame of the house. For safety reasons, the junction boxes remain open to the public.
1. Run the wiring during the initial repair phase. When there is nothing besides the rough walls, floor and ceiling.
2. Before installing the wires, check the integrity of the indicator. After – repeat the action.
3. Trace surface wiring lines for accurate wiring. This is easy to do with a building level and / or rangefinder..
4. No lighting during wiring. An autonomous energy generator or neighbors will help solve the problem.
5. After slitting, it is necessary to clean the furrows from dust with a brush. After priming.
6. When installing wiring in plasterboard structures, be sure to use protective sheaths.
7. Do not forget to leave a reserve of wire length at the points of connection with sockets, switches and boxes.
8. Use the same cables: copper or steel. The connection of two different metals is more susceptible to corrosion.
9. New wiring requires permission to connect to an external power source. Therefore, you cannot do without a specialist..
10. Switches are usually placed at a height of 1.5 – 1.7 m on one side throughout the apartment. At the same time, so that the open front door does not block access to them.
11. According to fire regulations, for every 6m² there is at least one socket, in the kitchen – three.
12. If it is necessary to cross wires, their insulation is increased. To do this, make 3 – 4 turns of electrical tape around each cable.