Construction of houses

How to build a brick cottage

Brick is a classic of private housing construction. It has established itself as a strong, durable, aesthetically pleasing, easy-to-install building material. Over the long millennia of use, the brick has never failed, but in order to improve its quality and technical characteristics, the recipes and technologies for its production are constantly being improved. That is why many owners make the conservative decision to build a brick cottage. And the very first questions they face: how much will it cost to build such a cottage, where to get a suitable project, are there any rules and recommendations for brick construction. Deeper into the topic, interest arises, and what types and methods of laying are, what recipes for solutions can be used and how to prepare them. We will talk about this to everyone and not only below..

Advantages and disadvantages of brick cottages

The choice of material for building a cottage is a responsible decision. Therefore, it is important to know what to expect in the future, how durable and reliable the structure will be..

Advantages of brick cottages:

  • More opportunities for the implementation of non-standard architectural projects.
  • Exceptional durability of the building (over 100 – 150 years).
  • The strength and reliability of the walls.
  • Attractive appearance.
  • Brick is not afraid of rodents, insects and microorganisms.
  • Brickwork has good vapor permeability, i.e. walls “breathe”.
  • No need to wait for the structure to shrink.
  • Fire resistance.
  • Any finish can be done.
  • You can equip any floors: concrete slabs, monolithic fill or wooden.
  • The material is ubiquitous.

Disadvantages of brick cottages:

  • Walls are cold enough without proper insulation.
  • Heavy foundation required.
  • The price for brick cottages is higher than for concrete, panel, frame-panel and cheap wooden houses. This is due to the costly labor-intensive masonry work..
  • May lose most of its strength as a result of severe fire..
  • It takes a long time to build.
  • Labor intensity of work.

All the disadvantages described above are very conditional, which is why, in search of a reliable, durable, beautiful and convenient material for construction, many people opt for brick. Nevertheless, a kind of classic in housing construction, which has proven itself in the best way.

Brick cottage projects

Brick cottage project

Once the decision has been made to build a brick cottage, the next step is to create or find a suitable project. The Internet is full of ready-made design solutions, some of which can be obtained for free, and some can be bought for about $ 400. It will cost about 5 USD to finalize the finished project. for 1 m2. If you order a project from an architect or a design bureau so that it can be completed from scratch, then count on $ 10-50. for 1 m2. Such a large fork is due to the different complexity of the solutions, so you can find out more specifically only by contacting.

Brick cottage project 1 floor

Brick cottage project 2 floor

When choosing a project, first of all, decide on number of storeys of the future cottage. It can be one-story, two-story, or have one full-fledged floor and a residential attic. Brickwork allows building taller buildings, but they no longer belong to the cottage category. It is extremely important to know the number of floors in advance, since the useful area of ​​the cottage and the complexity of the work will depend on this. After all, it is more difficult to cover a large one-story house with a roof than a compact two-story house, and the masonry area is still the same. If the building plot is small, then a large one-story building simply will not work. The number of storeys also affects the complexity of laying communications..

Internal layout Is the next important task. Here the choice is truly great, since brick is a fertile material. With the help of it, you can implement a lot of extraordinary solutions. In addition, the internal layout will determine the living space, the correct location of the premises and the layout of communications, the separation of zones from each other, and much more..

Before you go to order a project to an architect, first draw up a drawing for your brick cottage, taking into account all the main nuances in it. This will greatly facilitate the task of further selection or improvement. And the architect will immediately see what you are aiming for.

Additional buildings or premises: sauna, swimming pool, boiler room and others significantly increase the cost of the project and the construction itself. This is due to additional engineering systems and design solutions..

Thinking over communications, engineering systems and other things is not a task for an amateur. It is better to discuss this directly with a specialist. But you must know what energy carrier you will use for heating, where you will take water for life support, where to drain it, whether forced ventilation is needed, etc..

The cost of building a brick cottage

In the total estimate for the construction of a brick cottage, the brick itself takes no more than a tenth. The construction cost includes several main points:

To calculate the exact amount and cost of the required bricks, you need to make simple calculations. For example, a cottage has dimensions of 10×12 m. Then the total length of the walls will be 10 * 2 + 12 * 2 m, i.e. 44 m. Let us assume that the ceiling height will be 2.8 m. To calculate the area of ​​the walls, we multiply the length of the walls by the height, 44 * 2.8 = 123.2 m2. If the cottage is two-story, then we multiply this number by 2, if it is one-story, then no.

Bricklaying methods

To complete the calculations, you need to know exactly the type and method of the planned masonry: one and a half bricks, two or two and a half. The average brick consumption per 1 m2 of masonry, depending on the type of masonry, can be found in the table.

Table. Average brick consumption.

Average brick consumption

The obtained data must be multiplied by the area of ​​the walls of the house and you will get the full consumption of bricks according to the project data. It remains only to find out the total cost of a brick cottage by multiplying the number of bricks by the cost of one.

Example: we take a single brick and make a masonry of two and a half bricks. The table shows that the consumption of bricks per 1 m2 is 255 pieces. Then the consumption for the whole cottage will be 255 * 123.2 = 31416. We multiply by the cost of one, for example, 15 rubles. 31,416 * 15 = 471,240 rubles. We did not take into account in the calculations that there will be door and window openings in the masonry, since it is still necessary to make a significant supply of material, it can crack during transportation or laying, there will be a certain percentage of damage. Total, $ 14800.

To the cost of a brick for a cottage, we also add materials for the preparation of masonry mortar: cement, sand, lime and plasticizers, if used. Plus, the masonry work itself, which costs 2 times more than the material (brick, etc.).

But we have not counted the internal walls yet, but since the general calculation technology is clear to you, we will not dwell on this..

If you do not want to bother calculating the cost of your particular cottage, you can go to the website of a trusted developer and see the approximate prices. So a brick cottage costs about 500 – 700 USD. for 1 m2. This cost does not include the installation of windows and doors, interior and exterior decoration, wiring of communications, etc. In fact, a bare brick box 120 m2 on a solid foundation and covered with a roof will cost 60,000 – 84,000 USD..

Builders offer an even simpler calculation of the total cost of a cottage with finishing and communications – the cost of a brick is tenfold. Those. a cottage with an area of ​​120 m2 will cost 150 thousand USD.

General rules for the construction of brick cottages

Before starting the construction of a brick cottage, it does not hurt to get acquainted with the general recommendations and expert advice.

  • You should not buy a brick in winter if there is nowhere to store it in a protected area. Optimal terms of purchase are March-April, just before the start of construction.
  • Brick is a cold material. If you do not plan to carry out masonry with an insulating layer, then do not make the outer walls thinner than 64 cm, i.e. 2.5 bricks. Although their thermal conductivity does not correspond to modern standards, people somehow lived in Soviet times. Please note that in this case you will spend more on heating..
  • When laying in winter, prepare a solution with additives (plasticizers) so that it freezes more slowly.
  • In the summer, the addition of plasticizers is not necessary. But in very extreme heat, it is advisable to soak the brick in water before use. Otherwise, it will very quickly draw out all the moisture from the solution, the masonry will turn out to be less durable.
  • The laying of the lower rows (including the basement) up to the height of the average snow cover in the region must be made of clay bricks. In this case, silicate cannot be used. Chimneys, walls of wet rooms and ventilation ducts are also erected from red bricks..
  • Taking into account the fact that the brick absorbs moisture, for its greater safety, it is necessary to make at least 2 waterproofing layers: one 20 cm above the blind area, and the second 50 cm higher.
  • Before building a brick cottage, be sure to make sure that the calculations of the loads on the foundation are qualitatively performed. It should be as strong and stable as possible..
  • Regardless of the chosen masonry method, the first and last row (in front of the floor slab) must be butted, i.e. look outward with the narrowest side of the brick.

Reinforcement of brickwork with mesh

  • Reinforcement of the masonry with mesh every 5 rows will increase its strength.
  • Window openings are made at once with a quarter, then there is no need to make external slopes.
  • If you plan to plaster the walls outside or inside, then be aware that in this case the joints between the bricks are not completely filled with mortar and the wall itself does not look very aesthetically pleasing. But the voids in the seams allow the plaster to adhere better..
  • You cannot coat the last row of bricks with masonry mortar if this is the last row for that working day. The solution left overnight loses its strength properties.
  • If you plan to perform well masonry using insulation, remember the general rule of insulation: each subsequent layer (towards the street) must have a greater vapor transmission capacity than the previous one. This immediately excludes the possibility of using expanded polystyrene and extruded polystyrene foam. Mineral and basalt wool is also not the best choice, except for those cases when a ventilation gap of 1 – 2 cm is arranged after it, and only after that external finishing begins, for example, siding, facing bricks, etc..
  • To prevent the brick from getting wet, the finished masonry can be coated with water repellent compounds. Work must be carried out at a temperature not lower than +5 ° С, in dry weather after 10 am.
  • Facing brick is laid on a mortar of the same strength as the branded strength of the brick.
  • The beauty of masonry with facing bricks is provided by the contrasting color of the masonry mortar.
  • The crystallization of salts results in a white coating on the brick. To avoid this, it is necessary to use cement with a minimum salt content and try to prevent the mortar from getting on the front side of the brick. You should also shelter the masonry from rain and use a thicker solution..

All these recommendations, of course, do not reveal the general technology and concept of brick construction. But they will help you not to make stupid mistakes or control key points at the construction site..

Types of brickwork

Masonry work is one of the most difficult, jewelry and highly paid jobs. A good bricklayer is not easy to find. It is impossible to learn this just by reading the article. It is necessary not only to see the work of the master, but also to gain experience yourself through trial and error. Therefore, now we will not delve into how to build a brick cottage ourselves and what are the secrets of masonry, but only talk about the types of masonry. This knowledge will come in handy already at the stage of calculating the cost of a cottage..

First of all, let’s define the terms:

Brick sides

Spoon – narrow but long brick edge. Such a row is called a spoon.

Jab – the narrowest and shortest face of the brick. The row is called butcher.

Bed – the widest and longest brick surface. Always horizontal.

Solid brick masonry

Solid hollow brick masonry

Air-spaced masonry

Lightweight version of the well masonry with transverse walls

5.

Three-layer masonry with insulation

Of all the above masonry methods, the last one is the warmest. But he is not devoid of shortcomings. Firstly, this is the fragility and fragility of the connection of the main and facing layers. Over time, the facing brick may fall off, and the wetting of the mineral wool insulation threatens to completely replace it. Secondly, in order for the correct processes to take place in the insulation, the basic rule of thermal insulation, which has already been written above, must be observed. A number of facing bricks have less steam permeability than a layer of mineral wool, which means that moisture will accumulate in the latter. Over time, the walls will begin to mold..

You can avoid the last drawback by arranging a ventilation gap of 1 – 2 cm between the insulation and the facing layer of brick. But due to the complexity of the installation, this condition is often, if not almost always, neglected. Therefore, it makes sense to consider an implementation option instead of the facing layer of curtain-sided siding with a ventilated facade..

Types of brickwork dressing

In addition to information about the types of masonry itself, you will also need to know about the existing methods of bandaging masonry rows. This is especially important if you plan to build a brick cottage with your own hands..

1 through 3 or 5. First, one butt row is performed, then 3 or 5 spoon rows. The number of spoon rows depends on the expected load. This method of dressing is used mainly by inexperienced builders..

1 through 3. The first row is bonded, followed by 3 rows of spoon. Used for masonry of narrow walls and interior walls.

Bandaging brickwork

1 through 1. The first row is bonded, the second is spoon. The second row is necessarily shifted relative to the first by ¼ bricks.

Only the correct dressing ensures the strength of the structure. You should also reinforce the masonry with a masonry mesh every 5 rows..

Types of mortars for brickwork

In total, there are three types of mortars for which brickwork is performed. Each of them is good for certain situations..

Cement, sand and water – three-component solution. The ratio of cement and sand depends on what brand of mortar is needed. Minimum ratio: 1 part cement and 3 parts sand, maximum: 1 part cement and 6 parts sand. The more sand is added, the lower the grade of the solution.

Cement, sand, lime and water – cement-lime mortar. Consider the option of cooking in a concrete mixer. To obtain 1 m3 of mortar, 190 kg of cement, 100 kg of lime, 1700 kg of sand and 470 liters of water are required. First, the sifted lime or lime dough is mixed with water until a milk consistency is obtained. Then all this is filtered on a fine sieve. Cement and sand are mixed separately and mixed dry, only then milk of lime is added to it and everything is mixed again. The resulting solution will be much more plastic than conventional cement.

Masonry mortar with plasticizers

Cement, sand, plasticizer and water – solution with plasticizers. Modern additives in liquid and powder form can act as a plasticizer. How to prepare such a solution can be read on the packaging with the plasticizing agent. I would like to note that solutions with additives do not crack upon drying, have greater plasticity and, in general, are considered to be of better quality..

When building a cottage made of bricks, it is important to remember that the foundation must necessarily be recessed tape or slab, the walls must be perfectly flat in the horizontal and vertical plane. Floor slabs are laid on the stitch rows. After completing the masonry, it is advisable to immediately cover the walls with a roof. If this is not possible, then it is necessary to cover everything with foil..

Photos of brick cottages

Brick cottage 1

Brick cottage 2

Brick cottage 3

Brick cottage 4

Brick cottage 5

Brick cottage 6

Brick cottage 7