An estimate is a document that contains all estimates for the upcoming work. This document is drawn up during construction and any type of repair or interior decoration. An estimate is required in order to approve all costs and the total amount of work to be done. Its formation is based on projects, statements regarding defects, the total amount of work, general technical characteristics of buildings and the cost of material..
Budgeting is a necessary step when carrying out work on the installation or replacement of water, sewer or heating pipes. It allows you to determine in advance the final cost of the process, thus eliminating overhead costs. In the event that the laying is carried out independently, the estimate for the installation of the pipeline will help to immediately purchase everything you need and save you from troubles that are associated with a lack of material or tools. If the repair is carried out by workers, then a document with calculations will help get rid of unnecessary expenses.
Table of contents:
Rules for drawing up an estimate for the installation of a pipeline and a general estimate for the implementation of construction work
When making an estimate for a pipeline or for other types of work, the following factors are taken into account:
- Characteristics and parameters of buildings, their individual parts and various design features that are included in the project. Simply put – it is necessary to calculate all parts of the structure that are included in the scope of work, take into account their features – the protrusions of the room, the need to lay a pipeline in the wall, which will require additional drilling work, adding elements that were not included in the old project.
- The total size of all work that follows from the statements and the volume of the mounted elements, this factor is determined by the design materials. Based on the parameters of the structure and type of work, the amount of material required is calculated, its preferred type and cost is determined. For example, if an estimate is calculated for laying a water supply system in a bathroom, then it is necessary to calculate not only the footage of pipes, but also take into account the number of mixers, fasteners, couplings, taps.
- The total number of tools and auxiliary materials that will be needed in the process of dismantling and installation. This quantity is determined using customized specifications, statements and various documents that are included in the project. When making an estimate on your own, it is necessary to draw up a list of tools and improvised means that will be needed in the work.
- Taking into account the market price for the selected materials, as well as the cost of the work, use the calculation to calculate the total amount of the estimate. To summarize the price for work, the current standards and indicators are used. To accurately determine the amount that will be spent on materials, you need to find out their average market price.
For the competent drawing up of estimates, it is necessary to know some of the factors that classify them into different types. So for buildings and structures, estimates are made for the following work:
- General construction.
- Narrow specification construction works.
- Sanitary measures.
- Laying of electrical wiring, lighting.
- Installation of power plants.
- Installation and purchase of technological equipment, instruments for monitoring and measuring various indicators in residential and industrial buildings, devices with low voltage – alarms, communication equipment, automatic devices.
- Laying of communications pipelines for drinking water, sewage and heating.
Taking into account the total area of the building or the repaired premises, the calculation of the estimate is divided into the following types:
- Layout of vertical works.
- Installation of engineering communications.
- Construction of roads and paths.
- Works on the general improvement of the local area, landscape design.
- Calculation of small architectural forms.
All these classifications must be taken into account in order to calculate the order of performing all work during the budgeting process and avoid unnecessary costs. Some types of construction have their own specifics, which are incomparable with other works. If not only an estimate for the installation of technological pipelines is planned, but also other related construction and repair work, then all possible sections are taken into account. Of these, the following stand out:
- Construction processes:
- for the construction and repair of foundations and walls in their underground part;
- erection and repair of walls;
- frame installation;
- floors and base coatings, foundations, roofs;
- installation of structures in openings;
- installation of stairs and platforms;
- decor and finishing works;
- installation of additional structures.
- Specialized construction works:
- foundation for various equipment;
- specialized bases;
- equipment of canals and pits;
- equipment for chemical, protective and other coatings.
When calculating the total amount of the estimate, the following points must be taken into account:
- The main costs, they include the cost of all resources that will be needed in the process:
- material – materials, products, structures, equipment, furniture, inventory;
- technical – hiring equipment and mechanisms;
- labor – the cost of labor of workers, they are often included in the cost of renting equipment. If the estimate is calculated for technological pipelines, then most often lifting equipment and equipment for digging trenches are required.
Going directly to the project for installing the pipeline and drawing up its estimate, it should be noted that this process has its own specification. Based on the general rules given above, it is necessary to have knowledge and understanding of the process of laying and dismantling pipes. First you need to decide on the type of pipeline, of which there are several:
- Heat supply networks.
- Drinking water.
- Wastewater disposal.
- Petroleum products.
- Technological pumping of various liquids.
- Transportation of various raw materials.
On a domestic scale, an estimate is most often needed for dismantling the pipeline and its subsequent installation, or only laying pipes. When calculating the project, it is necessary to take into account the type of pipeline, which is internal and external. Piping outside a building is more difficult than internal work. The most important factor that affects the simplicity, speed and lower cost of internal work is the ease of creating the necessary conditions. The season does not play a big role in the structure, the presence of various atmospheric phenomena, the effect of the soil.
When it comes to laying an external heating network, then it is necessary to take measures to increase the service life of the pipes and reduce the loss of heat to a minimum. These operations also incur additional costs. When calculating the estimate for the installation of the pipeline, it is necessary to pay special attention to the following factors:
- The type of pipes and the material from which they are made.
- Total footage of pipes.
- Mounting type and number of fasteners, supports.
- The need to install expansion joints and their number.
- Protective agents that protect pipes from corrosion.
- Thermal protection of pipes.
If pipes are installed in the ground, then it is necessary to equip trays, impassable, passable and semi-passable. Also, this is done if the heat supply network has branches, switching chambers. Laying pipes underground involves excavation – this is the development of soil and loading it onto equipment. During the planning of the arrangement of impassable canals, budgeting includes the following work:
- Development of soil to the dump or removal of soil by road vehicles.
- Arrangement of the base.
- Trench reinforcement with concrete slabs or trays.
- Equipment for waterproofing walls and bottom of trays.
- Installation of supports and expansion joints for pipeline laying.
- Priming pipes.
- Processing of pipes with paint and varnish coating.
- Arrangement of a heat-insulating layer.
- Laying slabs.
- Waterproofing protection of the entire structure.
- Backfilling the trench with soil.
During budgeting, it is necessary to leave as many notes as possible on the defective statements. This will help the estimator to make the most accurate cost estimates. For example, one of the most common mistakes is applying one type of corrosion protection to water pipes and heating networks. Often, 1 layer of GF-021 primer and 2 layers of PF-115 enamel act in this capacity, while these materials are not applied to surfaces with an elevated temperature..
The laying of the heating network pipeline begins only after the completion of all the capital elements of the building, at the same stage the drawing up of the estimate begins. First, a network design is drawn up, which includes all pipelines that need to be installed, as well as heating appliances and equipment. When drawing up an estimate, the following points must be approved:
- The total power of all heating devices that will maintain the required temperature in the building. When calculating their number, take into account the quality of the building’s thermal insulation and the climate of the region..
- The type of equipment used is gas heaters, electric or solid fuel.
- Type and total amount of all equipment that gives off heat.
- Placement, total footage and type of selected pipes.
After approval of all components of the system, axonometric drawings of the laying of all circuits are performed. Also, at this stage, a schematic drawing of the location of the heat-giving equipment along the structure is drawn up..
Further, on the basis of all data obtained from the estimate and drawings, an investor estimate is formed, which is a preliminary calculation of the cost of work. This calculation contains:
- Cost of all materials.
- Duration and type of all installation and start-up work.
- Labor costs for work.
To facilitate self-calculation of the estimate, you must use special programs that are available online. Most often, these programs have video and text instructions that help to understand the algorithm of their work. If the work will be performed by a contractor, then it must be provided with the following data:
- Assignment for the installation of engineering systems.
- Desired project design and type of finish.
- Drawings and accompanying documents that the project contains.
The most expensive item in the estimate is material and equipment. In detail on this item, you must have the following data:
- Heat generator – boiler, stove or fireplace.
- Heating radiators.
- Pumps that maintain system pressure.
- Equipment for automatic control of the system.
- Pipeline type – polypropylene, metal, etc..
- Fittings for this type of pipeline.
- Shut-off valves.
- Heat-insulating and noise-insulating materials.
Next, you need to accurately determine and paint the order of the necessary work, which includes:
- Installation, connection and adjustment of heating equipment.
- Equipment for systems that remove combustion products – ventilation equipment and / or connection to the chimney.
- Installation and connection of heating circuits, often this item also includes the manufacture of holes in the walls for the pipeline.
- Installation of the “warm floor” system.
- Installation and connection of radiators.
- Installation of automatic control of the heating system.
- Transport and related costs.