Construction of houses

Do-it-yourself water supply of a private house

Even in the most remote country houses, not to mention modern country cottages, you can significantly increase the level of comfort simply by installing a plumbing in a private house. We will not assure you that this is such a simple matter, especially if the house has already been built and long ago, and not only at the planning stage, but nevertheless, many work on the installation of a water supply system can be done independently, without resorting to the help of specialists. Within the framework of this article, we will try to tell you how to install a water supply system in a private house, while we will only touch on work inside the house without taking into account the arrangement of a water supply source.

Plumbing scheme in a private house

Do not neglect such an important point as drawing up a water supply diagram. Don’t make excuses for yourself: all I have to do is bring them into the kitchen and the bathroom. Immediately, as soon as you decided to make a plumbing in a private house, draw a diagram of its laying around the house, taking into account all the elements: water consumers, collectors, a boiler, filters and a pump. Indicate the location of all elements and the path for laying pipes around the house. It is advisable to apply distances on the diagram. This will greatly facilitate the task of calculating the number of pipes for the water supply..

The pipe laying scheme can be done in two ways:

Serial connection suitable only for a small country house with a small number of water consumers, where 1 – 2 people live. For full-fledged country houses and cottages with permanent residence, such a system will not work. It consists in the following: water goes through the main pipeline throughout the house, a tee with a branch in its direction is placed near each water consumer. It turns out that if you use several consumers at the same time, at the most distant of them there will be very low pressure, which is not able to satisfy the needs.

Collector wiring of water pipes in a private house

Collector connection consists in diverting individual pipes from a common collector to each consumer separately. This provides almost the same pressure at every point in the house. Of course, some pressure losses will still be associated with the distance from the pumping station, but these losses are much less than with a serial connection..

The choice of a collector wiring system significantly increases the cost of plumbing in a private house. Mainly due to the larger number of pipes. But it’s worth it. Further, we will consider precisely the collector system.

Any private house water supply scheme consists of the following elements:

Plumbing scheme in a private house

Other additional elements may be present in the water supply system, but the typical diagram and connection sequence remain unchanged..

Installation of a water supply system in a private house

In works related to the laying of a water supply system in a private house, the most dusty and difficult is making holes in the walls or floor for the pipeline. For the rest, cutting and connecting pipes, connecting to consumers, connecting to a manifold, installing a pumping station and connecting filter systems, although it will take a lot of time, does not require much physical effort. So plumbing a private house with your own hands is quite a feasible task even for a beginner. The main thing is that the desire is unshakable, then everything is on the shoulder.

Choice of material for pipes

The first step is to decide on what kind of pipes we will use.

Copper pipes for plumbing

  • Copper pipes the best and most expensive. They are not amenable to corrosion, they are not afraid of ultraviolet radiation, they are indifferent to microorganisms, they do not notice high pressure, they do not react to changes in ambient temperatures, they are not afraid of harmful impurities in the water, and in addition they instantly give off heat. In general, a dream is not a pipe. One drawback is the price.

Reinforced-plastic pipes for water supply

  • Reinforced-plastic pipes are aluminum pipes, protected on both sides (inside and outside) with a polyethylene layer. The smooth surface of polyethylene prevents deposits from accumulating and prevents the development of rust. The outer layer protects against the effects of ultraviolet radiation and condensation. Significant disadvantages of such pipes are: fear of high temperatures over 95 ° C (deformed), sensitive to water freezing, pipes with fittings cannot be bent.

Steel pipes for plumbing

  • Steel tubes – the good old version. They are durable, strong, but at the same time they are afraid of rust. It is also important that for installation it is necessary either to cut a thread on each pipe element for connection, or to weld pipes, which is a very laborious process..

Polypropylene pipes for water supply

  • Polypropylene pipes recently they have been very popular when carrying out a water supply system in a private house. This is due to the fact that they have excellent performance characteristics, do not lend themselves to oxidation, are durable (up to 50 years), are relatively easy to install, and the connections do not require frequent checking, which allows the pipes to be hidden under plaster. Of the shortcomings, only one can be distinguished – the need for a special electric welding machine to connect pipes together..

Reinforced and unreinforced polypropylene pipes

Important! If your choice is polypropylene pipes, please note: for hot water supply, reinforced pipes (fiberglass, aluminum or other material) are required.

Considering the number of pipes required for laying a collector system, the price for a water supply system in a private house largely depends on the material of these pipes. So, when choosing, focus on the price / quality ratio and do not forget about your budget..

Selection of the diameter of the internal water supply pipes

The correct diameter is just as important as the pipe material. This is due to the fact that too small a pipe diameter can lead to turbulization of the flow, which means that the water in the pipes will move with noise, leaving a lot of lime deposits on the walls. The maximum speed of water advance in the pipeline is 2 m / s, based on this, and you need to select the diameter of the pipes.

The diameter of the pipes also depends from pipeline length:

  • For a pipeline less than 30 m long, pipes with a diameter of 25 mm are suitable.
  • For pipelines longer than 30 m, it is better to use pipes with a diameter of 32 mm..
  • For short pipelines less than 10 m in length, pipes with a diameter of 20 mm can be used.

Diameter of pipes for water supply

The correct arrangement of a water supply system in a private house largely depends on the correctly selected diameter of the collector pipe, so that it ensures the full simultaneous use of several consumers at once. To determine it, it is necessary to perform simple calculations: for example, one tap with water passes 5 – 6 l / min through itself, we calculate how many and which consumers we can turn on at the same time throughout the house.

  • The pipe with a diameter of 25 mm (1 inch) flows through it 30 l / min;
  • 32 mm (1.25 in) pipe flows 50 l / min;
  • 38 mm (1.5 in) pipe – flows 75 l / min.

If the family is large, there are many people living in the house at the same time, and there are few taps, quite often there will be situations when they will simultaneously use the sink in the kitchen, and the bathroom, and the toilet, and the washing machine. The consumption of these devices per minute must be summed up – the diameter of the collector pipe will depend on this..

If the family is small, and there are many consumers of water around the house, then the calculation is made differently. It is necessary to calculate the water consumption at the draw-off points and reduce it by 25 – 40%. This will be an approximate family expense..

Welding polypropylene pipes

Consider the connection of pipes to each other using the example of polypropylene pipes.

For cold water, we use pipes with a diameter of 25 mm, wall thickness 2.8 mm.

For hot water, we use reinforced pipes with a diameter of 25 mm, wall thickness 3.2 mm.

Welding technology for polypropylene pipes:

Cutting polypropylene pipes

Machine for welding polypropylene pipes

Welding polypropylene pipes

As a result, you should get an even and beautiful perpendicular connection. If you are not happy with the result, cut off the section with the connection and repeat the procedure from the very beginning..

Allow freshly welded pipes to cool slightly before using..

Plumbing in a private house

Layout of water pipes made of polypropylene in a private house

After the pipes are connected together, you can start laying pipes inside the house. We recommend starting with a water consumer.

To begin with, we connect the pipe to the consumer using an adapter to a threaded connection, we install a ball valve between the adapter and the tap hose, which is necessary to shut off the water, if repairs are suddenly needed, then we lay it towards the collector. There are a few simple rules to follow:

  • It is advisable that the pipes do not pass through building structures (walls and partitions). But if this is not possible, when laying the pipe in the wall, it must be enclosed in a special glass.
  • To make the pipes easy to repair, it makes sense to place them at a distance of 20 – 25 mm from the wall.
  • When installing drain taps, make a slight slope towards the tap.
  • When bypassing the outer corner, the pipe is located at a distance of 15 mm, the inner corner – 30 – 40 mm.
  • The pipes are fixed to the walls with special clips. Be sure to fix in each corner joint, on a straight section we place clips at a distance of 1.5 – 2 m.
  • To connect polypropylene pipes at an angle, including 90 °, special HDPE fittings, tees with the same and transitional diameters are used.
  • The fewer bends and corners in the line, the less pressure is lost.

When connecting a pipe to a manifold, shut-off valves must be installed to be able to disconnect the consumer from the system, including for the purpose of repair.

Connecting the pumping station to the internal water supply

The connection of a private house to the water supply system is carried out through a pumping station that pumps water from a source: a well or a well.

The pumping station is best located in a house, basement, basement or heated technical room. This will protect it from freezing and will make it possible to use the water supply even in severe frost..

Pumping station connection

A pipe comes from the water intake source to the pumping station, which ends with a brass fitting with an adapter for a diameter of 32 mm.

We connect a tee with a drain valve to this fitting in order to be able to turn off the water supply for repairing the water supply system. Then we connect the check valve so that the water does not come back. If you need to rotate the pipe in order to direct it towards the station, then we use a 90 ° angle.

Further, we will connect all the necessary elements using a quick connection “American”:

  • We connect the ball valve to turn off / turn on the water supply.
  • Next, a coarse mesh filter.
  • The finished pumping station must have a pressure switch and a damper tank. But if your pump is in the water intake (well, well), and the rest of the equipment is in the house, then we connect a pressure switch on top of the pipe, and a damper tank or hydraulic accumulator below.
  • Sensor that protects the pump from “dry running”.
  • We connect a fine filter to the remaining connection.
  • Next comes the transition to a pipe with a diameter of 25 mm.

Before further work, check the serviceability of the connection: start the pump – will it be pumping or not. If not, then something was wrongly connected somewhere or the accumulator is pumped over.

What is a hydraulic accumulator and why is it needed

The principle of operation of the accumulator

The accumulator is a sealed tank divided into two sections. One contains water, the other contains pressurized air. This unit is necessary in order to ensure a stable pressure in the water supply system and turn on and off the pump when needed..

For example, the accumulator is completely filled with water, the pressure in the system is 3 bar. When someone opens a tap in the house, uses water, it leaves the accumulator, the pressure drops, the relay is triggered and the pump starts. Water is pumped again, the pressure becomes 3 bar.

Hydroaccumulators

The volume of the tank is different: from 25 liters to 500 liters, it is selected depending on the needs of the family.

Installing a water supply system in a private house does not necessarily imply a hydraulic accumulator. You can use a large storage tank and install it on the highest floor of the house. Water will be supplied to consumers under pressure generated by its weight. But such a system is not enough for a washing machine to work..

Water treatment and water treatment

Water treatment and water treatment

It is imperative to check the water from the source in the laboratory for impurities and soluble salts. Depending on the results, various filter systems and water treatment units, iron removers, etc. are selected..

Immediately after the accumulator, water must enter the water treatment system. It is necessary to locate these devices at a distance of 0.5 – 1 m from the accumulator.

Installation of collectors and boiler

After the filtering systems, the water should be separated into two streams: one – into the collector with cold water, the second – will go into the water heater.

In front of the collector with cold water, we must install shut-off valves and a drain valve. On every pipe in the manifold too. The number of pipes depends on the number of water consumers in the house.

Plumbing in a private house would be incomplete without the provision of hot water.

Boiler connection

On the pipe that leads to the water heater, we install a safety valve, an expansion tank and a ball drain valve immediately below the boiler.

At the outlet of hot water and a water heater, we also install a ball valve. Then we connect the pipe to a collector with hot water, from which we spread pipes throughout the house.

On this, the installation of a water supply system in a private house with your own hands can be considered complete. Do not forget to first check the performance of the system and the absence of leaks in all sections of the water supply. If the results are positive, you can safely use.

Plumbing in a private house: video – review