Construction of houses

Do-it-yourself water supply of a private house

More recently, living in a private house was associated with a number of domestic inconveniences. For example, there was no bathroom or shower in the house, a full-fledged sink in the kitchen too, a toilet outside, washing only by hand. Water had to be carried in buckets from a nearby well or drawn from a well with a tap located outside. As a result, everything that you brought is used up. You wash the dishes in a bowl, bathe in a basin, preheating the water in a large container. All these problems are solved by a full-fledged water supply of a private house and proper drainage. Even on the basis of an already existing well or well, it is possible to implement the supply of water directly to the house to all consumers. This will allow you to enjoy all the modern benefits of civilization, such as a washing machine, dishwasher, you can take a shower or other water procedures right in the house..

What can be the water supply system of a private house

There are several ways to arrange water supply in a private house, differing in different sources of water intake..

Centralized water supply possible only if a water main passes next to the house. To connect to it, you must contact the organization for the control over water supply systems in your area. The organization will provide technical specifications for connecting the house to the water supply branch. There will be indicated the place of connection, the depth of the water pipes, their diameter, as well as the water pressure (head), which is guaranteed.

Central water supply of a country house

In practice, connecting a private house to the central water supply has a number of disadvantages: the water pressure can drop sharply, or be very small, insufficient for the normal functioning of the water supply system, the water contains chlorine and other additives. Also, in the event of an accident on the line, the house will be left without water. But on the other hand, if the electricity goes out, the water supply will not stop. For the services of the central water supply, you must pay monthly, according to the water meter.

Autonomous water supply of a private house can be realized by taking water from a well or well.

Autonomous water supply of a private house

What is better to equip on the site, a well or a well, depends on the properties of the soil, the depth and location of the aquifers, as well as on the productivity of the water vein.

Well

Well they are mainly equipped when high-quality edible water is located at a level from 4 to 15 m deep. At the same time, the aquifer must be large enough to meet all the needs of a family of 4 people. The average water supply is 200 liters. Due to the fact that groundwater can penetrate into the well, the water quality can be poor.

The indisputable advantage of the well is that in the event of a power outage, water can be collected with an ordinary bucket on a rope. Also, the service life of the well is at least 50 years, which is significantly longer than that of the well. The cost of arranging a well is less than a well. If you dig the well shaft manually yourself, you will have to pay only for the material for the walls and for the work on their installation.

Before deciding what to do on the site, well or well, talk to local residents, take water samples from them for analysis. Most often, if everyone in the area is digging wells, then it makes sense to take advantage of their experience and not reinvent the wheel. The situation is exactly the same with wells..

Depending on the depth and variety of the layer from which water is taken, there are wells “on the sand” and artesian wells.

Types of water wells

Well “on the sand” got its name from the fact that it affects the upper aquifers of the so-called sandy horizon, which follows a thick layer of loam that filters groundwater. The depth of such a well can reach 40-50 m. In different regions, the occurrence of this aquifer may be different. There are even cases that when drilling such a well, you can get into the bed of an underground river at a depth of 15 m. In this case, pipes and filters will not be clogged with sand, since the layer structure consists of pebbles. The service life of such a well can reach 15 – 20 years, while an ordinary well “on the sand” will last 5 – 7 years. The water supply is about 500 liters. You can drill such a well manually, it is much cheaper, and the excavation will be less. More likely to hit a good aquifer, since drilling is done empirically. Machine drilling of a well is much more expensive, but less effective, since the machine hits the well at a given depth, it is quite difficult to get to a good aquifer in this case..

Artesian well sinks to an aquifer in limestone rocks. The depth can reach 135 m. Of course, this water is much better than the water of the upper layers. The stock is practically unlimited, the minimum is 1500 liters. There is no need for special equipment for water intake, since the water is under pressure, it shoots up by itself. The likelihood of sewage or groundwater entering the artesian well is completely excluded. The service life is the same as that of the well – up to 50 years. The cost of drilling is much higher than that of a sand well due to its greater depth. And most importantly, artesian wells must be registered, since the limestone aquifer belongs to the strategic reserve of the state..

The water supply scheme for a private house involves the use of a pump or pumping station for water intake. They are installed in the house, in the utility room, or immediately above the well – in the caisson and connected to the water source by a pipe. The pump pumps water into the accumulator. From it, pipes diverge throughout the house to consumers. When someone in the house starts to consume water, for example, turn on the tap in the shower or in the kitchen, the pressure in the system gradually drops. When it reaches 2.2 bar, the pressure switch is triggered and turns on the pump, which again pumps water into the accumulator until the pressure reaches 3 bar. The pressure switch is activated again and the pump is switched off..

Diagram of the water supply system of a private house

House water supply scheme

In short, the house water supply scheme consists of the following elements:

It is best to equip the water supply of a private house with your own hands in the warm season, when the water level is lowest, and the chance of making a mistake with the location of the aquifer is very small, and the soil is pliable, it is easy to dig trenches. Depending on the water intake conditions, where the water source is located, what depth, what type, different pumps are used. The accumulator is also a rather expensive unit. So many do not install it, but use other methods of pump control, performed by themselves..

Water supply of a private house from a well

Despite the widespread fashion for wells, in many regions people still prefer to dig wells to provide themselves with water. In many ways, the reason is that in the event of force majeure, you can draw water from it with an ordinary bucket.

Having taken water samples from neighboring wells for analysis and having received satisfactory results, you can start looking for a place for your well..

You can look for the best place for a well, where there will be an abundant aquifer at a not very deep depth, using old-fashioned methods or modern devices. It is still reliable to monitor the presence and volume of dew very early in the morning (4 – 5 am in summer) for six months. The collected information is outlined, and then diagrams are drawn up and the place where the most water is determined.

In addition, a number of sanitary restrictions should be taken into account: there should be no toilets, cesspools, sewers, compost heaps or other sources of pollution at a distance of 50 m. You should also not place the well too close to the house, as washing out the sand from the floater can lead to shifts in the foundation..

After you have found a place, you can order a private house water supply project. In principle, you can do it yourself, with minimal engineering skills, but it’s better not to risk it. While the project is being prepared, you can start digging a well..

How to dig a well

How to dig a well

We will consider the option of a well with reinforced concrete rings. First of all, we level the site on which we are going to make a well. Then we draw a circle with a radius 10 – 20 cm larger than the radius of the ring.

Using a shovel, we dig a round hole of the required diameter. We stop when the reinforced concrete ring, installed in the pit, protrudes by 10 cm.Most often, the height of such a ring is 90 cm, but sometimes even 100 cm.

Digging a well with a shovel

Install the first concrete ring. To do this, carefully deliver the ring to the pit in the position on its side, then turn it over and lower it into the pit. We install at least 3 connecting brackets on the end.

Then we continue to dig, again one ring deep. We put the soil in a container and lift it up. We put the first ring down and install the second in the brackets. Since we are planning to bring a water supply system into the house, then in the second ring it is necessary to make a hole for a pipe with a diameter of 1.5 times the diameter of the pipe.

Pumping water from a well with a pump

We continue to dig and install new rings until water begins to intensively enter the well. Approximately this should happen after 6 – 8 rings. It is desirable that there are more than 3 aquifers (fontanels). We stop and start pumping out water and sand, which is washed up. We continue to go deeper into the ground for another 40-50 cm, while the pump pumps out, since the arrival of water is quite intense.

When the excavation is completed, we leave the well shaft to fill with water for a day, we need to know its level. We close the future well with something so that no one accidentally falls inside. In a day, we look at how much water is in the well. If more than 1 – 1.5 m – good. We pump out all the water again.

We put small stones on the bottom, crushed stone on top with a layer of 30 – 50 cm.This will be our filter.

We close the gaps between the concrete rings of the well with cement mortar

We fill up all the gaps between the rings with a cement-sand mortar so that the top water does not fall into the well. If we did everything correctly, the well should be filled with about 1.5 concrete rings..

How to connect a pumping station to a well

Connecting the pumping station to the well

A water supply device in a private house involves raising water from a well using a pumping station and distributing it throughout the house.

A pump or pumping station for a well is best located in a home or utility room. Therefore, from the well to the house, we dig a trench below the freezing depth of the soil and lay a pipe in it..

The material of pipes is different – steel, metal-plastic, copper and others. Choose according to your budget and requirements. The convenience of metal-plastic pipes is that they bend. We put the pipe into the hole in the ring of the well, bend it and lower it down to the very water. Insert a mesh inlet filter inside.

The pipe should not reach the bottom of the well by 30 – 40 cm. Now we again pump out all the water from the well, drive a pin into the bottom and attach the pipe to it. The hole in the concrete ring for the pipe is sealed with cement mortar.

We bury a trench and equip a clay castle around the well at a depth of 40 cm, 50 cm thick, at a distance of at least 1.5 m from the rings. This is necessary to protect the well from rain and ground water..

To choose the right pumping station, you need to know the characteristics of our well. The most common pumps pump water from a depth of 9 m and lift it up to 40 m.But for a well at a distance, it makes sense to purchase a self-priming centrifugal pump with an external ejector that can lift water from a depth of up to 45 m.

Connecting the pumping station to the well

In the room where the pumping station will be located, the temperature in winter should not fall below +2 ° С. We install a coarse filter and a check valve in front of the pump inlet. We put a fine filter after the pumping station. Then we connect the pressure switch, pressure gauge and other devices. We divert the pipe to the collector, which distributes it to consumers. We connect the pumping station to the control panel.

All that remains is to mount the water supply – and you’re done.

Water supply of a private house from a well

The main advantages of the wells are: cleaner and better quality water with a lower proportion of water, a larger supply of water for the domestic needs of a large family.

The well location is subject to the same restrictions as the well. Except that it can be drilled close to home.

The price of a well for water depends on the type of well, on the method of drilling, therefore it is individual for each.

How to drill a well

Well drilling scheme

A tripod, a drill string with a drill and a hoist are used to drill a well by hand..

A tripod is installed over the site of the future well and drilling and excavation begins.

Well drilling

For the first 1 – 1.5 m, a pin drill is used to remove the soil from above. A casing with teeth is then inserted into the hole and drilling continues until a suitable aquifer is found. In this case, the first layers can be skipped and drilled further. When the layer is found, a galvanized water pipe with a filter at the end is inserted into the casing pipe. The pipe sections are interconnected with couplings, the joint is carefully coated with sealant. Then the casing is pulled out.

For a well, a pit must be equipped with a depth of at least 1 m. In it, the well pipe “looks out” 10 – 15 cm from the bottom..

How to connect a pumping station to a well

Connecting the pumping station to the well

There are two ways to install a pumping station. The first is to equip a warm utility room right above the well, if it is located not far from the house. The second is to install a caisson above the well, in which the pump will stand.

We will not dwell on the first method in detail, since everything is more or less simple with it. Consider installing a caisson.

Well caisson

We dig in the pipe to a depth of 2.5 m, with a diameter of 2 times the diameter of the caisson. Pour a 20 cm thick concrete cushion at the bottom, which will hold the weight of the caisson on itself.

Then we install the caisson in the pit. We cut the well pipe so that it protrudes 500 mm inside the caisson. At this level, at a depth of about 1.8 – 2 m, we dig a trench leading to the house. We put a water pipe in it.

We install the pump in the caisson and connect it to the well pipe. But the accumulator, into which the pump will pump water, still needs to be installed somewhere in the house or utility room. We also install filters and a pumping station control unit..

We fill the caisson along the contour with concrete mortar with a layer of 30 – 40 cm. When the concrete dries, the rest of the space, not reaching 50 cm to the top, is covered with a mixture of sand and cement. The soil is poured from above. The caisson will be well protected from frost.

Hot water supply of a private house

Hot water supply of a private house

When the water is supplied directly to the house, it will no longer be difficult to heat it up. To do this, you can use several options..

The first is to install double-circuit boiler, for example, gas. One circuit will heat water for the heating system, the second for domestic needs. From the pumping station, a pipe with cold water is connected to the boiler, a pipe with hot water comes out of it and connects to a manifold that distributes water throughout the house.

The second option is to install single-circuit boiler, which will deal exclusively with heating water for the needs of the house. It can be gas or electric. It is imperative to install a boiler to it..

The third option is to install electric storage water heater.

The fourth is suitable for large cottages. Can be installed many flow heaters in front of every consumer.

The installation of water supply in a private house will be completed when hot and cold water pipes are installed throughout the house. You should also take care of the drain, i.e. sewers or septic tanks. Water disposal is a mandatory element. Now you won’t be able to carry out the water with buckets. It is necessary to equip the drainage of water from the sink, shower, bath, washing machine and toilet.