Construction of houses

Do-it-yourself compaction of rubble

It is quite difficult to imagine any construction process without the use of rubble. It is used when creating a foundation, mixing concrete mortar, forming garden paths, organizing landscape design, laying access roads and highways. The article will focus on the basics of compaction of crushed stone.


The product of rock crushing is used to equip the so-called pillow, which performs the following functions:

  • leveling the base before further work;
  • imparting hardness to weak-bearing soils;
  • protection of buildings from the negative effects of moisture;
  • increased durability under high loads.

In any case, the quality of the crushed stone base directly depends on the physical and technical characteristics of the material. It will not be possible to determine the characteristics by their appearance, they are indicated in the accompanying documents, certificates.

A kind of rubble

This bulk material is produced by passing boulders through crushing equipment. At the exit, a stone of various fractions from 0 * 5 to 40 * 70 mm is obtained. The size determines the scope. For household construction, crushed stone 5 * 20 and 20 * 40 mm is mainly used.

The type of building material is:

  • granite. It is characterized by high natural strength and ability to withstand multidirectional loads;
  • limestone. In terms of hardness, it is practically not inferior to granite crushed stone. However, it costs much less. Perfect for housing construction;
  • slag. Such material is obtained from metallurgical waste. The cost is much lower than the above types of gravel. But due to harmful impurities in its composition, the scope of application is rather limited;

  • secondary. Crushed stone is produced from construction waste (fragments of brick, asphalt or concrete). Of course, the recycling of the material does not differ with high rates, and therefore it is not suitable for all types of work..

Before buying, you should pay attention to such a parameter as flakiness. A large percentage of the content of lamellar grains significantly reduces the strength of the finished base during the construction of objects for any purpose. Therefore, the lower this parameter, the better..

Crushed stone compaction coefficient

When self-building, everyone faced such a problem as a shortage or surplus of material. The ability to calculate the required amount is an important aspect of any process. Average values ​​are often used for household needs..

To calculate the volume, you need to know:

  • required pad thickness after tamping. Usually this indicator is 0.2 or 0.25 m;
  • compaction of crushed stone with a rammer, the compaction coefficient is 1.3. The parameter is correct for most fractions, compacted by means of mechanized means;
  • specific gravity of bulk material, which is indicated in the certificate. For ease of calculation, let’s take a weight of 1.5 t / m. cube typical for ordinary rubble.

So, knowing all the components of the equation, we calculate the material for 1 square meter of laying: 0.25×1.3×1.5 = 0.4875 t.

As with any calculation, the result is rounded up. Means for filling 1 sq.m. an area of ​​a layer of crushed stone 25 cm thick will need 490 kg. Well, calculate the volume for 10-20 sq. m. will already be much easier.

Why do you need to compact the base with crushed stone

The question of compaction is asked by all newcomers to the construction business. Indeed, in theory, the stone itself is a durable material and it is quite enough to level it and you can proceed to the next stage of work. However, things are not that simple..

  • Crushed stone is obtained by crushing, during which the grain faces acquire a free shape. When filling the material between each element, air voids are formed, which reduce the level of resistance under loads.
  • The tight fit of individual fragments reduces the risk of their “walking”. Indeed, after compacting the soil with crushed stone, the voids disappear or are significantly reduced in volume. Thus, an additional margin of safety for the foundation is created..

  • As an exception, you can consider the rocky ground, which serves as the basis for construction. In this case, it is quite enough to level the crushed stone embankment for subsequent work: laying tiles, pouring concrete, etc..
  • In other conditions, the gravel should not just lie on the ground, but be compacted, forming a single plane. Dense filling of the space between the grains with soil particles will give the necessary solidity.
  • The thickness of the compacted layer can vary from 50 to 250 mm. The safety factor for compaction of crushed stone determines the subsequent load on the base (passing vehicles, pedestrians, the weight of the structure, etc.).
  • A separate line can be used to highlight the crushed stone base. The method consists of several stages – the use of gravel of different fractions. First, coarse material is taken and compacted, then crushed stone is poured in a smaller size and compacted again, the last layer is fine-grained material and the final rolling of the surface is carried out.

Compaction of crushed stone with a manual rammer

In the absence of special vibration equipment, craftsmen use tools made with their own hands. Of course, with such a seal, good physical fitness is necessary. Manual ramming is relevant for small volumes of work.

  • There are many options for how to make a device. Of these, the most primitive beam is 100×100 mm. You can take wood with a large cross-section, thus increasing the area covered for compaction..
  • The length of the bar is selected based on the ease of use, more often a person’s chest is taken as a basis. The lower end of the tool is lined with galvanized sheet. In the upper part, handles made of wooden pegs or metal rods are mounted on both sides.
  • The way it works is pretty simple. The bar is lifted by the handles to the maximum height and is forcefully lowered onto the crushed stone base. Repeated repetition of these movements in a certain direction will lead to the desired result.

  • If the zealous owner has a metal head, then it is fixed to a thinner wooden base, for example, a log. The device will become much easier, which means that the rammer will go “more fun”.
  • A device made entirely of metal (stand and sole) has a more durable construction. True, this material creates a large vibration, which the wood perfectly dampens. In this case, the solution is to use special gloves..

Compaction of crushed stone with a vibrating plate

The use of a vibrating plate or vibrating rammer is relevant for global volumes. With the help of technology, the process is possible both in hard-to-reach places and in areas located near the walls of buildings.

  • The equipment is compact, reliable and mobile. Simple operation and high efficiency make it possible to perform work with maximum quality in a short time. Vibratory plates weighing from 60 to 120 kg are used for domestic needs..
  • The principle of operation lies in the vibration of the plate, obtained by rotating eccentrics. Ramming takes place by transferring shock vibrations and energy from the support shoe to the crushed stone.
  • Shock absorbers dampen mechanical vibrations going to the top of the equipment, thus providing protection for both the engine and the operator. The equipment is equipped with a gearshift lever, which makes it possible to adjust the travel power.

  • According to the method of movement, one-way and reversible (with reciprocating) devices are distinguished. The latter option is characterized by increased functionality and efficiency. With their help, ramming is carried out without cyclic movement on the surface to be treated..
  • The engine can run either on liquid petroleum (gasoline or diesel) or by being connected to the electrical network. Units with an electric motor are lightweight (up to 100 kg). They are widely used in works where high requirements are not imposed on the compaction of the material..
  • Such equipment can be purchased in specialized stores or by hand, as they say, second-hand. The most profitable option is to rent equipment, which will cost much less..
  • In any case, it is important to comply with operating conditions that will extend the service life and prevent failure. Before starting, you should carefully study the instructions for use, familiarize yourself with the safety rules.
  • Regular lubrication of individual elements, cleaning the air filter, changing the oil will help maintain all the technical parameters of the equipment.

Alternative options for compaction of gravel

For these purposes, you can also use home-made devices based on the principle of action similar to mechanized equipment. Here you will need an old metal trough, a pipe, sand and a welding machine..

  • A handle from a pipe segment is welded to the container at an angle, and perpendicularly located fittings are fixed to the upper part. It is advisable to additionally strengthen the bottom of the trough by welding an iron sheet to it.
  • By filling the device with sand, we end up with a versatile hand-held device like an asphalt roller. The device is moved by the handle in a given direction, and due to its considerable weight, gravel will be compacted. In operation, it is quite simple, but it will require some skill and, again, physical strength..
  • The second method is relevant for tamping bulk material on a spacious area devoid of green spaces, a gazebo, a fence or other obstacles. The technology assumes the presence of a car, with the help of which the compaction of crushed stone sand is carried out.
  • The gravel layer is spread over the entire surface with a shovel or rake. Then we sit behind the wheel and begin to systematically drive along the prepared site in different directions (along, across and diagonally) until we get the desired result.
  • If a track is formed in the process, then gravel is poured in this area, so a little material must be left for backfill. Further ramming continues with the above method. Of course, this method cannot be called manual, but nevertheless, the compaction is carried out on our own without the involvement of construction teams or the purchase of special equipment..
  • Controlling the compaction of crushed stone is important for any construction work, it should not be carried out for show and, moreover, should not be neglected. This gives reliability and stability to buildings or road surfaces, and also ensures safety during operation..
  • At the end of the work, the determination of the compaction of crushed stone is carried out with a special device.

  • An analysis of the soil, the level of occurrence of groundwater should be carried out in advance. The quality of work depends on this information. Otherwise, even with the most effective compaction, one cannot be sure that subsidence will not occur in the future, which, in turn, will entail unpredictable consequences..