Construction of houses

DIY wooden cottage

More and more city dwellers dream of leaving their apartment and moving away from the bustling metropolis. Someone has enough temporary weekends and picnics, but the vast majority dream of their own house. You can raise money to buy a house or build a wooden cottage with your own hands. If you study the relevant information and competently carry out all stages of construction, the cottage will last a very long time..

Content:

Choosing wood for construction

Many people dream of building their own country cottage, where they can spend summer evenings or live there permanently. A wooden house will make you feel calm, comfortable and comfortable. The most popular modern materials for its construction are simple beams, glued beams and rounded logs..

The indisputable advantages of wood are known to almost everyone: wood is well processed, installed, glued, easily connected with nails, screws, etc. The density of wood is in no way inferior to metal. Also, wooden walls are endowed with low thermal conductivity. If the room has not been heated for a long time during the winter period, you will have to warm it up for several hours to obtain comfortable conditions..

Wooden walls are environmentally friendly, they remove excess moisture from the room and create a healthy microclimate. The service life of wooden walls is about one hundred years. But wooden walls have their drawbacks as well. Wood is susceptible to light inflammation, decay and insect attack. Therefore, it needs special treatment to provide protection against moisture and fire..

Also, wooden walls have a large shrinkage, therefore, after cutting, it should take about a year to finish. When dry, the tree deforms, so you should choose a material with the required moisture level. That is why the construction of wooden cottages with your own hands is popular..

Optimal layout

Before starting the construction of a cottage, it is necessary to correctly calculate its layout. When choosing a territory, be sure to take into account the proximity of the future house to other houses, foresee in advance the possibility of its ignition and protection from the winds. The layout of a classic cottage is very simple.

In one-story houses, all rooms are on the same level, which makes them very comfortable. Often, older people and small families choose just such an arrangement. For a cottage, you must immediately provide an attic. With this approach, the layout may become a little more complicated, but this allows you to make at least four rooms in the building. The lack of living space is compensated for precisely thanks to the attic. You can always place guests in the attic or use it for a children’s room.

A fireplace, stove or other heating devices can be used to heat a cozy building. When choosing an interior, be sure to take into account the features of the structure and the functional load. You can emphasize the proximity of your home to nature, so that visiting guests can have a great time and relax away from the bustle of the city..

It should be added that wood is highly decorative, so you can use pictures with beautiful landscapes and still lifes. Often in the projects of wooden cottages, the construction of a large hearth is laid. A fireplace can serve as an excellent conductor of comfort and warmth. If you think over the layout of a wooden cottage well, this will make the best use of its space..

Installation of strip foundation

For a wooden cottage, a strip type of foundation is ideal. First, you need to mark the construction site for the size of the foundation. You will need fishing line and rebar. After placing the perimeter, hammer the reinforcement into it. Be sure to check the angles by measuring the diagonals before tightening the line. If they turn out to be different, you need to move the corners until the dimensions match. Only then can you pull the line..

The inner border can be obtained by stepping back 40 centimeters from it. Each land plot has different slopes, so you need to make a water level. However, if you have already leveled the construction site, you can skip this step. The foundation should be about 55 centimeters deep, but remember that the bottom should be flat. To create a sand cushion, it is necessary to stretch the line at the appropriate level of sand. Next, you need to evenly fill it up and tamp it, pouring water.

For the device of the formwork, you can use an edged board measuring 150 x 25 millimeters. When finished, the edged board can be applied to subfloors or battens. Formwork panels are made on the ground, and they must be less than the thickness of the board. When knocking down, the heads of the nails should be on the inside of the formwork, and their edges should be bent outside.

The ends of the shields must be connected with self-tapping screws and secured with a large number of spacers, which also need to be secured. Using a construction stapler, it is necessary to attach glassine to the inner walls of the formwork. At the bottom of the pit during the construction of a wooden cottage, broken building bricks should be laid, which can serve as a support for the reinforcement rods. After that, it is required to retreat from each border of the foundation about 3 centimeters, after which the laying of the reinforcing lattice begins.

Reinforced rods must be of sufficient length. Using a knitting wire, you need to attach horizontal bridges at intervals of 40 centimeters. Then, in the resulting cells in the corners, it is necessary to attach horizontal rods to vertical ones. After that, transverse rods are attached. The joints are best done with knitting wire. To install ventilation in the basement, it is necessary to use an asbestos-cement pipe of 10 centimeters, which is tied to the reinforcement at the same level as the formwork. You can use knitting wire to secure it..

Don’t forget plumbing, sewerage, and electrical wiring. At the base, it is necessary to make special holes that can be used to output pipes and wires. Just install all required pipes before pouring. When the concrete is poured, try to tamp the mixture more often so that air bubbles do not appear in it. After that, it is necessary to level the material with a trowel or one and a half. Wait a few weeks before building walls.

Walling

If you decide to build a cottage from logs, then know that they usually fit one on top of the other. A crown is called one row of logs, settling around the perimeter, and all other rows are called a log house. For each log, a special groove is provided, which serves to connect them. Insulation material can be installed in the grooves, which can increase the thermal insulation characteristics of your cottage..

First, you need to perform a rough assembly of the log house without using thermal insulation. The material should stand in this form for six months, then it will sediment and dry. After that, the logs can be numbered and dismantled in order to assemble them on the foundation. There are several ways to cut walls. If you decide to build a beautiful wooden cottage from round logs, you can use the “in the cup” method. This method consists in the fact that the distance from the end of the log to the end of the cup is 30 centimeters, so more than half a meter is lost on two joints.

Paw chopping is a less costly method. With this approach, the log remains inside the structure, and the joints become stronger. Timber walls are assembled in the same way as log buildings. If you want to build a house for summer vacations, a 15 centimeters wide beam will be enough for you..

But for permanent residence, a timber with a thickness of 20 or more centimeters should be used. The blockhouse must be made in parts. The height of each log house should be approximately 1.5 – 2 meters. First you need to assemble the log house on the ground, and then disassemble it. Due to the shifting, all work can be performed while standing on the ground. Do not forget to calculate and leave space for the windows and doors of the cottage..

Roof installation

In the independent construction of wooden houses and cottages, hip and gable roof options are most often used. The gable version can be attributed to the attic type, which is very simple to build. The gable roof contains rafters, battens, ridge boards and roofing. Knowing the width of your house, you can independently choose the required type of roof.

Be sure to pay attention not only to the appearance, but also to the performance characteristics. After installing the rafter legs, it is necessary to install the crate. To do this, you can use a beam of 50 by 50 millimeters, which is nailed across the rafter legs. Next, you need to pin the roofing to the crate. You can use a variety of roofing options.

The cheapest is slate, and the most beautiful coatings are provided by metal tiles, painted metal profiles or flexible tiles. Slate sheets and metal tiles are stacked only from the bottom row. Make sure that the sheets in the row do not become skewed. The sheets of the first row must be fixed on one nail so that when the entire row is secured, it will be possible to align it. Only then can you fix it completely..

If you use metal tiles or metal profiles, you need to install a vapor barrier. The gables are sewn up with any sheet and moisture resistant materials, such as slate or siding. If you want to arrange a mansard roof of a house, inside the attic it is necessary to arrange a frame structure of walls with insulation.

Installation of windows

After installing the roof, you can install windows, entrance doors and utilities. A wooden house is distinguished at the first time after construction by a high mobility of the structure, which is associated with a certain moisture content of the tree. The tree, losing it, decreases in volume, and therefore, subsidence of the walls and the formation of cracks are observed. All this must be taken into account when installing windows in a cottage..

The issue of heat saving is acute, therefore, when building houses, they try to reduce the gaps and gaps that are formed in the tree. The best energy-efficient windows are called plastic. Specially for the installation of cottages, manufacturers have created PVC windows “wood-like” – this color is obtained by applying a laminated film to the surface that imitates a wood coating – its color and structure.

Unlike wooden joinery, which is used for the manufacture of windows, PVC profile is characterized by a much lower coefficient of expansion and does not depend to such an extent on air humidity. The first stage in the installation of plastic windows is the pre-assembly preparation of the opening – the manufacture of the casing. To do this, cut out a special thorn at the ends of the window openings, the size of which is 30 by 30 millimeters. Insulate this thorn with rolled tow.

After that, on the insulated ridge, install a casing bar with a groove cut in the middle of 50 by 50 millimeters. Install the casing from three sides; make the ridge only on the vertical plane. Such a casing device is able to minimize horizontal displacement of the logs and ensure free vertical sliding of the window structure..

Leave a gap of 6-7 centimeters between the casing board and the wall, which should be insulated with polyurethane foam. After carrying out such work, you can install a plastic window into the resulting window opening. Installation of the structure is carried out on the fastening anchor plates so as not to violate the tightness of the product. After that, level the plastic window in all planes using a level, fill the technological gaps with polyurethane foam and install a vapor barrier self-sealing tape outside.

Installing the front door

After the construction of a wooden cottage, at first it gives a significant draft, therefore, when installing doors, it is necessary to take into account all these features, otherwise it will affect the performance of the door. In order not to face problems in the future, it is necessary to develop the correct approach to construction even at the stage of reinforcing the foundation..

You cannot use various waste and scrap metal for these purposes. Uneven shrinkage of a wooden cottage on such a basis can provoke a number of difficulties: a change in the shape of doorways, problems with thermal insulation. Determine in advance where the doorway will be located, even before the walls are erected, in order to install more dowels near the openings.

Iron doors cannot be installed in an opening that is not reinforced, but simply made in the wall. Thanks to the casing, it is possible to get rid of the deformation of the openings that occurs during shrinkage and use of the building, increasing its strength. You can plant openings during the construction of walls, as well as after construction.

To perform the casing of the doorway, make spikes along its both verticals. Then take a pair of beams with the desired section, which play the role of vertical supports, with a length less than the height of the opening. Make a longitudinal groove on them along the entire length, then attach them to the spikes on both sides. It is prohibited to fasten vertical bars with nails..

Install a cross member on top of the casing bar, which is a plank that is 5 centimeters thick. Leave a gap above it to compensate for thermal expansion, the height of which should be more than 8 centimeters. At the time of installation of the iron door, there must be a gap above the cross member to compensate for stretching and compression.

The door must be made the same size as the cased doorway where you made the mounting clearances. Secure the door block to the vertical beams with 12 mm self-tapping screws. Seal the gaps during installation with polyurethane foam. Since the shrinkage of a wooden cottage and an extension will take place at different speeds, you need to tie the cased opening to the wall of the building.

Wall insulation

If the cottage is well insulated, it will be possible to live in it on a permanent basis. In addition, insulation will help reduce heating costs. You can do these jobs yourself. To maintain the internal dimensions of the room, you can well insulate the house from the outside. Most often, wooden houses are insulated with mineral wool. This material is lightweight, inexpensive and retains heat well. Lightweight and flexible, the material is easy to install.

Once insulated, you can decorate the house with wood, siding, or plastic. First you need to install a vapor barrier. For this, aluminum foil, a vapor barrier, plastic wrap and roofing material are used. The vapor barrier provides ventilation for the facade of the wooden cottage. If the house is made of round logs, there will be no ventilation problems. But on walls with smooth surfaces, it is better to stuff narrow vertical slats so that the distance from each other is a meter.

Then a layer of vapor barrier is stuffed onto the slats. At the bottom and top, between the starting rails, it is necessary to make holes of 20 millimeters for ventilation. This approach will prevent moisture accumulation under the film and rotting of the wooden wall. When you make the frame, boards with a thickness of about 40-50 millimeters and a width of 100 millimeters are used for the thermal insulation material. They are stacked vertically on the wall.

Next, the slabs of mineral wool are laid, while making sure that the gaps between the boards of the frame are excluded. Usually, two layers of mineral wool, 5 centimeters each, are laid. This is done with the expectation that the joints of the first layer must fall on the middle of the slabs of the second. A waterproofing film must be laid on the thermal insulation layer, which retains water and does not let steam through.

For this, the film is placed on thermal insulation and nailed or stapled to the frame boards. Do not forget to leave an overlap of 5-10 centimeters, as in the photo of wooden cottages, for joining the film, and seal the joints with self-adhesive tape. On top of the waterproofing, it is necessary to fill slats 50 meters wide and 30 millimeters thick. This approach is done to ensure good air circulation between the outer skin and the vapor barrier..

Wall decoration

The main task of finishing can be called the protection of the facade of a wooden house from external negative factors. The most popular materials for exterior wall decoration are siding, imitation timber, lining or block house. If you wish, you can not finish the building at all. Today, siding is considered the most popular building material. This explains its low cost, practicality and decorative characteristics..

Most often, metal or concrete siding is used in decoration, which will not be afraid of temperature changes and fire. If the possibility of fire is minimized, you can use wood or vinyl siding. Also, to give your cottage a special comfort, you can use natural or artificial stone, facing brick as decoration.

Interior decoration will help turn your home into a real piece of paradise. For this, you can use lining or siding. Before finishing the walls with paint, you need to test it on a small area of ​​light wood. Also, do not forget to clean the walls of dust and dirt, sand them with sandpaper, apply a putty and a primer..

After the primer is completely dry, you can start painting. Be very responsible for the choice of paint. Carefully study the substances that make up it, as they can have a harmful effect on the tree. Buy paint based on its environmental friendliness. You can also use wood stain or wall art painting.

During the first few years of living, it is better not to use drywall as a cladding material for the walls of a wooden cottage, as there is a risk of cracks. Also remember that finishing the walls inside the house is necessary after the final laying of the house and the drying of the logs..

Arrangement of the porch

The porch is an important part of any wooden cottage. The porch is an open area, which is equipped with steps and sometimes a canopy. Thanks to the porch, during bad weather and rain, the entrance doors are reliably protected. This design is also responsible for the convenience of entering the house. And the appearance of the cottage is significantly improved, successfully complementing the architectural style.

The most widespread is the wooden porch, as it is best combined with the decoration of the cottage. For the manufacture of a wooden porch, a log is most often used, however, there are also structures that are built from a bar of different sizes and types. But the tree has certain disadvantages, for example, a short service life in case of maintenance errors and low resistance to various deformations..

And the most durable is the metal porch. If used correctly, the structure will not change position, shape and rust. Steel structures are lightweight, so they do not require a solid foundation. The metal porch has only one significant drawback – the high cost.

Brick structures are characterized by a long service life. All atmospheric influences, thanks to ceramic blocks, do not harm the porch. In addition, the brick has the required quality. If you use stone to decorate your steps, you can get a solid porch look. The complexity of arranging structures is small, but it takes more time to build such a porch than for wooden and metal counterparts. A porch made of concrete looks more holistic, since monolithic material is used for its arrangement.

Considering all of the above, it becomes clear that you can independently build a cozy cottage. If you use traditional technologies, materials and your own labor, you can significantly reduce construction costs and the price of a wooden cottage. To better understand the entire construction technology, you can watch special videos that can clarify many incomprehensible points. If you are not confident in your abilities, you can trust the professionals who offer the construction of turnkey country cottages.