Construction of houses

Diy interfloor staircase

Thinking about building their own home, developers are increasingly giving preference to two-story cottages, since this is the most optimal way to expand living space in a relatively small area. The construction of multi-storey private buildings is associated with the need to equip a reliable staircase that ensures safe movement on floors. According to experts and experienced developers, interfloor staircases are not only functional, but also a decorative detail of the interior, which makes it possible to transform a room beyond recognition. In this regard, if you are the owners of a country cottage with an attic, in which there are no stairs yet, it’s time to think about its correct planning and construction, the procedure for which will be considered in this material, prepared by our experienced specialists.

Interfloor staircase: cons of the factory design

Unhindered rise to the floor can be achieved by purchasing and installing a ready-made structure, which is characterized by a number of disadvantages:

  • High price characteristics;
  • The need to spend additional time on adjusting the parameters of the structure, since it often does not correspond to the parameters of the house;
  • And, of course, there is always a risk that you will buy a poor quality product..

In order not to once again face serious production shortcomings, we advise you to use our advice and start making an interfloor staircase with your own hands..

Varieties of interfloor stairs: basic characteristics

Spiral staircases are ornate compositions, the design of which resembles a spiral twisted along the axis. The main purpose of spiral staircases is installation in small rooms, where there is an urgent need to save every square meter. It is important to familiarize yourself with the basic design parameters of spiral staircases: in accordance with building codes, the diameter of the spiral staircase is 1.3 m, while the central width of the step is 20 to 25 cm;

Marching staircase – one of the most common structures erected in the construction of multi-storey cottages. It is a supporting stepped structure located at an angle of 45 degrees. Spans of mid-flight stairs are also stepped, while the number of steps in one span is up to 15 pieces;

Swivel stairs are characterized by a similar design, marching stairs, which differs from the previous one by the presence of a turn of up to 180 degrees. Despite the fact that the design of such stairs is quite traditional, its manufacture is associated with certain difficulties, and therefore, it is better to entrust it to specialists;

Bolt stairs – another version of marching stairs, the design of which involves their fastening not to a support, but directly to the wall, in connection with which it acquires some originality and, at the same time, airiness.

Spiral staircase: fashion statement or functional design?

Spiral staircases have become a recent innovation, which have earned their popularity due to their elegant design and certain functional advantages. What do we mean by virtue? In this case, we are talking about the possibility of stretching the spiral staircase to any height you need, while spending the established minimum area under the stairs. An important advantage of assembling a spiral staircase is the ability to assemble it by a person without professional skills..

Despite this, it is characterized by a number of serious shortcomings:

  • The size of the tread, that is, the main, running part of the steps, is optimal and safe only in the middle, where they almost never step;
  • The angle of inclination of the stairs changes two to three or more times;
  • Differences in designs intended for left-handers and right-handers: they should be made in a mirror image – for left-handers, twisted counterclockwise, for right-handers – vice versa;
  • It is forbidden to lift furniture and other heavy objects along the spiral staircase..

Fundamental information on the safety of stair structures

Before answering the question: "How to make an interfloor staircase?", consider the basic requirements for the safety of staircase structures.

  • The main concept that must be followed in the manufacture of interfloor stairs is the safety of movement, which depends on the degree of observance of the optimal dimensions and technical characteristics of the entire staircase. Since the main element of the staircase, which determines its safety, is the steps, it is necessary to correctly observe its basic parameters: the tread is a horizontally oriented surface, the riser is vertical. These dimensions are determined based on the angle of rise of the stairs;
  • To prevent falls and injuries, it is believed that the optimal angle of inclination of the ladder is 45 degrees, while the width of the step should be at least 45th foot. In this case, the height of the vertical part of the step should not exceed 20 cm;
  • Handrails, balusters and poles are an integral part of the stairs, especially those installed in those houses where there are children. If the thickness of the balusters does not exceed 5 cm, they should be installed in 15 cm increments.But if you plan to install a wide staircase, equip it with an additional railing with a wall handrail.

Thus, the basic requirements for the safety of an interfloor staircase in a private house are as follows:

  • Convenience and reliability of the design;
  • The presence of a convenient approach to the stairs;
  • Safe and convenient location of the railings;
  • Correspondence of the length and height of the steps to the length of the step;
  • Adequate lighting above the stairs.

The choice of material for the manufacture of interfloor stairs

Wooden interfloor stairs: advantages and disadvantages

Interfloor wooden stairs are the most affordable way of installing stairs for an inexperienced craftsman. However, a significant drawback of ladder structures made of straight-grained coniferous wood is their relatively quick failure, due to the fact that the ladders begin to creak and dry out. But given the fact that a significantly lower load-bearing load lies on a wooden staircase, it can be easily repaired, or, in the event of a major overhaul, install a new one..

As for the stairs made of fine-grained high-density hardwood, their service life is much longer, however, their cost is several times higher than the cost of the previous ones..

Important! Although hardwood is more durable, it is susceptible to the harmful effects of insects and fungus. In this regard, an integral and one of the first operations in the manufacture of wooden stairs from hardwood is their impregnation with complex protective compounds against pests..

However, in certain cases, the installation of an interfloor staircase made of coniferous wood is quite acceptable. Consider these cases.

If you plan to install an attic, especially a folding or retractable ladder, which will last no less than a ladder made of fine-grained rocks, due to the special microclimate of the attic;

  • If your house has a seasonally inhabited attic or an unheated one and a half floor, the transition to them can also be arranged using a staircase made of coniferous species;
  • In a one and a half or two-story cottage, inhabited only in the warm season, you can also equip the same staircase;
  • The sleeping attic can also be equipped with such a ladder, however, they must first be protected from drying out by treating with a special water-polymer emulsion, varnish and paint.

Metal interfloor stairs: advantages and disadvantages

In private housing construction, metal stairs are usually used in combination with other materials:

  • The frame is often welded metal;
  • The steps are made of wood or concrete;
  • While decorative finishing is carried out using any materials you wish.

Despite the fact that the manufacture of a staircase with a metal frame is a much more laborious and costly business, however, its operational life is practically unlimited, due to the peculiarities of the material, while it is possible to change or repair the staircase without drastically changing the design of the staircase.

Concrete stairs: advantages and disadvantages

The construction of reinforced concrete stairs is associated with mass standard construction. But private construction is not complete without the construction of such structures. They are of two types: monolithic and combined with metal. In the first case, the technology of their installation involves the manufacture of steps by pouring concrete into a frame, similar to a metal-wooden staircase, reinforced with reinforcement. In this case, horizontally oriented surfaces, which are less susceptible to wear, are made in any other way..

Interfloor stairs photo

When to start planning and construction of a flight of stairs? Master’s tips

Often, the main mistake of developers is that they think about erecting an interfloor staircase at the end of the construction of the house. Ideally, the design of the staircase should be started at the stage of foundation construction, so that you can correctly calculate the load on the staircase, as well as correctly calculate the interfloor staircase and its location.

When calculating the parameters of an interfloor staircase, pay attention to the following characteristics, having withstood which, you will mount a safe staircase:

  • The angle of inclination of the stairs is at least 45 degrees;
  • Tread width – 30-35 cm;
  • Lift height – from 14 to 18 cm.

Making a high-quality staircase with your own hands

Before proceeding with the manufacture of an interfloor staircase, it is necessary to develop its project and make calculations of the parameters of the future structure;

Decide on the location of your future structure and measure the parameters of the room;

Given the width of your future staircase, calculate the height of the steps as follows:

For example, if the height of the stairs is 250 cm, and the height of the steps is 18 cm, the first indicator must be divided by the second. As a result, having received the quotient and rounded it to an integer, we come to the conclusion that the required number of steps is 14. To determine the height of the steps, the height of the entire structure (250 cm) is divided by the number of steps (14 pieces) and we get the number 17.86 – exactly this should be the height of the steps.

Next, you need to decide on the shape and height of the railing. It is important to remember that this is the main safety parameter of the entire staircase. The height of the railing must be at least 90 cm, while you can choose their design at your discretion.

Next, decide on the material from which you plan to make the staircase structure. For this, you can choose metal, stone or traditional wood. In addition, you can use additional materials such as glass or ceramics..

Next, evaluate the strength of the floor and other floors in the place where the future structure will be installed. This is necessary so that in the event of exceeding the possible loads, the destruction of the floors does not occur..

Important! The destruction of load-bearing structures can occur if the permissible weight of the ladder is exceeded, in the case of the use of low-quality materials, an insufficient number of support points, as well as insufficient strength of the fasteners. In this regard, it is necessary to carry out preliminary fastenings according to the approximate location of the support points, the strengthening of insufficiently reliable floors, as well as the choice of structures, the weight of which corresponds to the reliability of the supporting elements.

Strengthening the site is another integral stage of the preparatory work, since it is the basis of the staircase structure.

After you have decided on the location of the future structure and its configuration, carried out the calculations and chose the suitable material for the stairs – in general, we have completely carried out the preparatory measures, purchase a basis for future parts, and then adjust all the details yourself. You can also ask for help from specialists who will completely fit all the elements, as well as assemble the structure..

Prepare the beam structures, as well as mark the steps. This is necessary for the subsequent preparation for the installation of steps.

Do not forget that the calculations of the parameters of the staircase are made taking into account the staircase configuration. In this regard, before calculating the spiral staircase, it is necessary to make a rounded opening, while when installing a flight staircase, the opening is rectangular or square.

Fastening of the steps of the stairs is carried out using special stringers or bowstrings. There is another way of attaching the steps, which involves cutting the steps in the form of the side parts of the bowstring..

If you preferred the first method of fastening, install the support post, and mark the location of the steps on the supporting beams. Using a disc tire, make grooves on the steps. Using self-tapping screws, attach the stringers to the wall in accordance with any technique you know. It is important to remember that the interfloor staircase is always located in the immediate vicinity of the wall..

If you chose a spiral staircase, first of all, install the rack, which will act as a supporting beam for the entire structure. In this case, it is better to give preference to a metal rather than a wooden stand. Next, put a wooden sleeve, a metal washer on the rack and start installing the steps.

At the final stage of the staircase installation, fix the railings, balusters and racks, as well as other decorative elements available to you, which are secondary parts of the staircase and are installed in order to give the structure a certain zest. Finally, cover the stairs with varnish..

And finally: the criteria for choosing wood for the manufacture of stairs

When choosing a material for the manufacture of a staircase and giving preference to planed wood, follow these recommendations.

  • The surface of the material should be characterized by the absolute absence of dark spots;
  • Defects, cracks and chips on the surface of the material, as well as any roughness, are unacceptable;
  • If you plan to make only steps and risers from the material you have chosen, the presence of small knots and defects is allowed. We must not forget about the moisture content of the material, and therefore, refuse to purchase material that is characterized by a large mass.

Regardless of the stair design you choose, there are many options for mounting and assembling each of them. By watching the video presented in the article, you can acquire additional practical skills for making an interfloor staircase from various materials.