Chimney masonry is made of different materials. Some are able to successfully resist the appearance of corrosion, condensation and soot deposits. Others allow the manufacture of a complex chimney configuration. Nevertheless, as before, traditional brick chimneys are highly popular, which have proven their reliability and efficiency over hundreds of years of operation..
Along with the massive construction of country houses, interest in fireplaces, stoves and boilers has increased. To organize the outflow of combustion products, a brick chimney is most often erected. An outlet structure made of this material is usually used for single heating and heating devices..
Different types of brick chimneys have gained wide popularity due to a number of advantages:
The negative qualities of a brick chimney include:
Consider a typical design of a brick chimney – this will help you understand the main stages of construction.
Brick chimney: device diagram
An important point in the construction of a chimney is the choice of bricks. At different stages of the construction of a smoke exhaust duct, different types of bricks can be used:
Important! Porous, lightweight and hollow bricks are prohibited for use in the construction of a chimney
The laying of different parts of the structure is marked by the use of a working solution of a different composition:
- the chimney area above the roof is laid out on a cement-sand mixture;
- masonry under the roof is carried out with lime or cement-lime mortar.
Home safety, comfort, fuel consumption and air purity largely depend on the accuracy of the chimney calculations. The design of the chimney of a boiler, fireplace or stove must meet the indicated criteria:
Additional requirements for chimneys in a brick house:
Important! If the roof of the house is covered with a combustible material (shingles), then the pipe mouth is additionally equipped with a spark arrester having mesh cells of no more than 0.5 * 0.5 cm
Smoke moves in a spiral along the stove / chimney. Therefore, it is optimal if the inner section of the chimney is made in the form of a circle. But it is impossible to lay out a pipe of this shape from a brick. Therefore, the brickwork of the chimney is made of rectangular shape..
It is advisable to treat the inner corners with a leveling compound. For such work, it is better not to use plaster – due to frequent temperature changes, the material can quickly crumble.
The size of the chimney is determined by the dimensions of the entire building. On a small, compact house, a chimney that is too high and wide will look comical. Chimneys with dimensions of 260 * 260 mm are being built for Russian stoves.
Advice. Economical brick consumption is achieved when laying a pipe of 260 * 130 mm. This design is possible when laying each row of five bricks.
To work, you need the following tools:
- hammer pickaxe;
- a hammer with a rubber attachment;
- buckets for water and working solution;
- electric drill with mixer attachment;
Materials must be prepared in advance: brick, clay and sand.
For the solution, clay, clean without debris and impurities, which was mined from a depth of 1.5 m, and river sand, are suitable. Before work, sift the clay and sand through a sieve with holes no more than 5 mm. Two days before the start of laying, the clay must be soaked in water (for about 48 hours) and mixed.
Solution preparation procedure:
Before laying the chimney out of bricks, a nozzle pipe is equipped. It is being built with the obligatory observance of brick dressings. The shell pipe is laid out directly above the fireplace or on the stove in the shape of a rectangle about 4-6 bricks in size. A cavity is left inside the structure – a smoke well. The packing pipe ends, not reaching five to six rows to overlap.
The subsequent laying of a chimney made of bricks with your own hands is the arrangement of the fluff neck. The height of the cutting neck is five bricks, the size of the smoke channel is 140×270 mm.
The fluff is laid out in compliance with a number of rules:
Previously, a hole must be made in the roof to bring the chimney out. The riser is erected in the attic and brought out to the roof, observing the bandaging of the brickwork. The height of the riser on the roof – 1-2 bricks.
The next stage after laying the riser is the arrangement of the otter. This pipe segment consists of nine rows, while the outer size of each subsequent one should be ¼ bricks to exceed the previous one.
Important! At this stage of work, special attention should be paid to the internal size of the canal – it should neither narrow nor expand
In the third row, the width of the otter is increased due to the extended bricks – the front ledge extends to the sides. In the fourth – sixth row, the side protrusions are lengthened. In the seventh row, the formation of the side protrusions is completed. The eighth and ninth rows complete the structure and form all the protrusions of the pipe..
Next, the chimney neck is formed. The height of this element is on average five to eight rows. After laying the neck, the head is equipped using the same technology as the fluff.
The final stage of the construction of the chimney – installation of a weather vane or cap.
Brick chimney: video
When installing a chimney for a boiler, it is important to understand the features of the combustion process and the specifics of removing decay products. It is necessary to take into account all the nuances of the chimney construction technology, therefore it is better to entrust this work to specialists. Errors in chimney design and use of a chimney valve can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning..
How to lay out a chimney for a brick boiler: video
There may be malfunctions in the operation of the heater due to defects that were made when laying the chimney: